Organic horticulture

An organic garden on a school campus

Organic horticulture is the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants by following the essential principles of heirloom variety preservation.

The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. Horticulture is also sometimes defined simply as “agriculture minus the plough.” Instead of the plough, horticulture makes use of human labour and gardener’s hand tools, although some small machine tools like rotary tillers are commonly employed now.

Contents

  • General 1
  • Organic gardening systems 2
  • Pest control approaches 3
  • Impact on the global food supply 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
    • Bibliography 6.1
  • External links 7

General

External links

  • Eliot Coleman. The New Organic Grower: A Master's Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and Market Gardener. Chelsea Green, 1995. ISBN 0-87596-753-1
  • Karan Davis Cutler, Barbara W. Ellis, and David Cavagnaro. The Complete Vegetable & Herb Gardener : A Guide to Growing Your Garden Organically. Wiley, 1997. ISBN 0-02-862005-4
  • Tanya L.K. Denckla. The Gardener's A-Z Guide to Growing Organic Food. Storey, 2004. ISBN 1-58017-370-5
  • Barbara W. Ellis and Fern Marshall Bradley, eds. The Organic Gardener's Handbook of Natural Insect and Disease Control: A Complete Problem-Solving Guide to Keeping Your Garden and Yard Healthy Without Chemicals. Rodale, 1996. ISBN 0-87596-753-1
  • Anna Kruger, ed. Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening. DK, 2005. ISBN 0-7566-0932-1
  • Edward C. Smith. The Vegetable Gardener's Bible. Storey, 2006. ISBN 1-58017-212-1
  • Steve Solomon. Gardening When It Counts: Growing Food in Hard Times. New Society, 2006. ISBN 0-86571-553-X
  • Paul Stamets. Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. Ten Speed, 2005. ISBN 1-58008-579-2
  • HRH The Prince of Wales and Stephanie Donaldson. The Elements of Organic Gardening. Kales, 2007. ISBN 0-9670076-9-0

Bibliography

  1. ^ National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service on healthy soils Retrieved 2009-3-8
  2. ^ Organic pest control strategies Retrieved 2009-3-8
  3. ^ Douglas John McConnell (2003). The Forest Farms of Kandy: And Other Gardens of Complete Design. p. 1. 
  4. ^ Intensive Organic Gardening, Ohio State University Extension Factsheet
  5. ^ http://growbiointensive.org
  6. ^ "Benefits of Organic Gardening". Retrieved 2011-05-25. 
  7. ^ "Build a Vermicompost Bin". Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  8. ^ "Organic Pest Control". The Powered by the People Pest Control team. 2012-04-11. 
  9. ^ Organic Pest and Disease Management Guide, Cornell Univ Retrieved 2009-3-8
  10. ^ Organic Materials Review Institute on allowed substances Retrieved 2009-3-8
  11. ^ Biello, David (25 April 2012). "Will Organic Food Fail to Feed the World?". Scientific American. Scientific American. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  12. ^ Harball, Elizabeth (11 June 2014). "Copious Fertilizer Down on the Farm Means More Global Warming Pollution up in the Sky". Scientific American. Scientific American. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  13. ^ Biello, David (25 April 2012). "Will Organic Food Fail to Feed the World?". Scientific American. Scientific American. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  14. ^ Harball, Elizabeth (11 June 2014). "Copious Fertilizer Down on the Farm Means More Global Warming Pollution up in the Sky". Scientific American. Scientific American. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  15. ^ Biello, David (25 April 2012). "Will Organic Food Fail to Feed the World?". Scientific American. Scientific American. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  16. ^ Biello, David (25 April 2012). "Will Organic Food Fail to Feed the World?". Scientific American. Scientific American. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 

References

  • List of organic gardening and farming topics
  • List of organic food topics

See also

As well, world hunger is not primarily an issue of agricultural yields, but distribution and waste. [16]

Organic methods have other advantages, such as healthier soil, that may make organic farming more resilient, and therefore more reliable in producing food, in the face of challenges such as climate change. [15]

Much of the productivity advantage of conventional agriculture is associated with the use of nitrogen fertilizer. [13] However, the use, and especially the overuse, of nitrogen fertilizer has negative effects such as nitrogen runoff harming natural water supplies and increased global warming. [14]

One controversy associated with organic food production is the matter of food produced per acre. Even with good organic practices, organic agriculture may be five to twenty-five percent less productive than conventional agriculture, depending on the crop. [11] [12]

Impact on the global food supply

[10] Each of these techniques also provides other benefits, such as soil protection and improvement, fertilization, pollination, water conservation and season extension. These benefits are both complementary and cumulative in overall effect on site health. Organic pest control and

In contrast, organic horticulture tends to tolerate some pest populations while taking the long view. Organic pest control requires a thorough understanding of pest life cycles and interactions, and involves the cumulative effect of many techniques, including:[9]
• Allowing for an acceptable level of pest damage
• Encouraging predatory beneficial insects to flourish and eat pests
• Encouraging beneficial microorganisms
• Careful plant selection, choosing disease-resistant varieties
• Planting companion crops that discourage or divert pests
• Using row covers to protect crop plants during pest migration periods
• Rotating crops to different locations from year to year to interrupt pest reproduction cycles
• Using insect traps to monitor and control insect populations

Differing approaches to pest control[8] are equally notable. In chemical horticulture, a specific insecticide may be applied to quickly kill off a particular insect pest. Chemical controls can dramatically reduce pest populations in the short term, yet by unavoidably killing (or starving) natural control insects and animals, cause an increase in the pest population in the long term, thereby creating an ever increasing problem. Repeated use of insecticides and herbicides also encourages rapid natural selection of resistant insects, plants and other organisms, necessitating increased use, or requiring new, more powerful controls.

Pest control approaches

[7] Other methods can also be used to supplement an existing garden. Methods such as

[6]

There are a number of formal organic gardening and farming systems that prescribe specific techniques. They tend to be more specific than, and fit within, general organic standards. prehistoric times, is thought to be the world's oldest and most resilient agroecosystem.[3]

Organic gardening systems

Organic horticulture (or organic gardening) is based on knowledge and techniques gathered over thousands of years. In general terms, organic horticulture involves natural processes, often taking place over extended periods of time, and a sustainable, holistic approach - while chemical-based horticulture focuses on immediate, isolated effects and reductionist strategies.

Horticulture involves five areas of study. These areas are floriculture (includes production and marketing of floral crops), landscape horticulture (includes production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants), olericulture (includes production and marketing of vegetables), pomology (includes production and marketing of fruits), and postharvest physiology (involves maintaining quality and preventing spoilage of horticultural crops). All of these can be, and sometimes are, pursued according to the principles of organic cultivation.

are also utilized by organic horticulturists. [2]

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