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Organization

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Organization

Structure of the United Nations.

An organization or organisation (see spelling differences) is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.

The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means "organ".

Contents

  • Types 1
  • Structures 2
    • Committees or juries 2.1
    • Ecologies 2.2
    • Matrix organization 2.3
    • Pyramids or hierarchical 2.4
  • Theories 3
  • Leadership 4
    • Formal organizations 4.1
    • Informal organizations 4.2
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Types

There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions.

A public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities.

A clubs.

Organizations may also operate in secret and/or illegally in the case of resistance movements.

Structures

The study of organizations includes a focus on optimizing management science, most human organizations fall roughly into four types:

Committees or juries

These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group, perhaps by voting. The difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are usually assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries, legal juries render decisions of guilt, liability and quantify damages; juries are also used in athletic contests, book awards and similar activities. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus among local notables.

Committees are often the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice, then adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote (however correctness is defined). The problem is that if the average member is subsequently worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better; therefore, staffing is crucial.

Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions.

Ecologies

This organization has intense profit, or they are fired.

Companies who utilize this organization type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology. It is also the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not in general compete with one another in any way, but are very autonomous.

The The Guardian. By:Bastian Batac De Leon

Matrix organization

This organizational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organization is well-trained, and measured by a boss who is super-expert in the same field. The other direction is "executive" and tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organized by products, regions, customer types, or some other schema.

As an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, and another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc. Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines.

Pyramids or hierarchical

A bureaucracy.

These structures are formed on the basis that there are enough people under the leader to give him support. Just as one would imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure. So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirized in The Peter Principle (1969), a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence."

Theories

In the social sciences, organizations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as organizational behavior, or organization analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible:

  • From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used.
  • From an institutional perspective, an organization is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context.
  • From a process-related perspective, an organization is viewed as an entity is being (re-)organized, and the focus is on the organization as a set of tasks or actions.

Sociology can be defined as the science of the division of labor.

Economic approaches to organizations also take the transactions.[1]

An organization is defined by the elements that are part of it (who belongs to the organization and who does not?), its communication (which elements communicate and how do they communicate?), its autonomy (which changes are executed autonomously by the organization or its elements?), and its rules of action compared to outside events (what causes an organization to act as a collective actor?).

By coordinated and planned cooperation of the elements, the organization is able to solve tasks that lie beyond the abilities of the single elements. The price paid by the elements is the limitation of the interaction.

Among the theories that are or have been influential are:

  • Organization Workshop method.
  • Actor–network theory, an approach to social theory and research, originating in the field of science studies, which treats objects as part of social networks
  • complexity theory in the field of strategic management and organizational studies
  • Contingency theory, a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions
  • critical theory perspective
  • Economic sociology, studies both the social effects and the social causes of various economic phenomena
  • Enterprise architecture, the conceptual model that defines the coalescence of organizational structure and organizational behavior
  • Garbage Can Model, describes a model which disconnects problems, solutions and decision makers from each other
  • Principal–agent problem, concerns the difficulties in motivating one party (the "agent"), to act in the best interests of another (the "principal") rather than in his or her own interests
  • Scientific management (mainly following Frederick W. Taylor), a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows
  • Social entrepreneurship, the process of pursuing innovative solutions to social problems
  • Transaction cost theory, the idea that people begin to organize their production in firms when the transaction cost of coordinating production through the market exchange, given imperfect information, is greater than within the firm
  • Weber's Ideal of Bureaucracy (refer to Max Weber's chapter on "Bureaucracy" in his book Economy and Society)

Leadership

A

  • Research on Organizations: Bibliography Database and Maps
  • TheTransitioner.org: a site dedicated to collective intelligence and structure of organizations

External links

  • Coase, Ronald (1937). "The Nature of the Firm" Economica, 4(16), pp. 386–405.
  • Hewlett, Roderic. (2006). The Cognitive leader. Rowman & Littlefield Pub Inc.
  • Marshak, Thomas (1987). "organization theory," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 3, pp. 757–60.
  • Mintzberg, Henry (1981). "Organization Design: Fashion or Fit" Harvard Business Review (January February)
  • Morgenstern, Julie (1998). Organizing from the Inside Out. Owl Books ISBN 0-8050-5649-1
  • Peter, Laurence J. and Raymond Hull. The Peter Principle Pan Books 1970 ISBN 0-330-02519-8
  • Samson, D., Daft, R. (2005). Management: second Pacific Rim edition. Melbourne, Victoria: Thomson
General
  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b c
  3. ^ a b

References

See also

Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. Their personal qualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader wields influence or power. Influence is the ability of a person to gain cooperation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment.[2]

In prehistoric times, man was preoccupied with his personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Now man spends a major portion of his waking hours working for organizations. His need to identify with a community that provides security, protection, maintenance, and a feeling of belonging continues unchanged from prehistoric times. This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent, or unofficial, leaders.[2]

[3] In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges within the context of the

Informal organizations

[3] An organization that is established as a means for achieving defined

Formal organizations

[2]

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