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Raccoon eyes

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Title: Raccoon eyes  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Sucking blister, Delayed blister, Basilar skull fracture, Coma blister, Edema blister
Collection: Medical Signs, Periorbital Conditions
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Raccoon eyes

Raccoon eye/eyes (also known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as panda eyes, though that term commonly refers to excess or smeared dark make-up around the eyes, or to dark rings around the eyes) or periorbital ecchymosis is a sign of basal skull fracture or subgaleal hematoma, a craniotomy that ruptured the meninges, or (rarely) certain cancers.[1][2] Bilateral hemorrhage occurs when damage at the time of a facial fracture tears the meninges and causes the venous sinuses to bleed into the arachnoid villi and the cranial sinuses. In layman's terms, blood from skull fracture seeps into the soft tissue around the eyes. Raccoon eyes may be accompanied by Battle's sign, an ecchymosis behind the ear. These signs may be the only sign of a skull fracture, as it may not show on an X-ray. They may not appear until up 2–3 days after the injury.[3] It is recommended that the patient not blow their nose, cough vigorously, or strain to prevent further tearing of the meninges.[4]

Bilateral periorbital ecchymosis (raccoon eyes)

Raccoon eyes may be bilateral or unilateral.[5] If bilateral, it is highly suggestive of basilar skull fracture, with a positive predictive value of 85%. They are most often associated with fractures of the anterior cranial fossa.[6][7]

Raccoon eyes may also be a sign of disseminated neuroblastoma[8] or of amyloidosis (multiple myeloma).

Depending on cause, raccoon eyes always require urgent consultation and management, that is surgical (facial fracture or post-craniotomy) or medical (neuroblastoma or amyloidosis).


See also

References

  1. ^ Herbella, FA; Mudo M; Delmonti C; Braga FM; Del Grande JC (December 2001). "'Raccoon eyes' (periorbital haematoma) as a sign of skull base fracture". Injury 32 (10): 745–7.  
  2. ^ EMT Prehospital Care (4th Edition)
  3. ^ Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition)
  4. ^ Nursing: Interpreting Signs and Symptoms
  5. ^ Skull fractures. Step-by-step diagnostic approach. Best Practice, BMJ. http://bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/monograph/398/diagnosis/step-by-step.html
  6. ^ http://bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/monograph/398/diagnosis.html
  7. ^ Visual Diagnosis in Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Christopher P. Holstege,Alexander B. Baer,Jesse M. Pines,William J. Brady, page 228
  8. ^ Gumus K (2007). "A child with raccoon eyes masquerading as trauma".  


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