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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Simplified Chinese: 上海合作组织
Russian: Шанхайская организация сотрудничества
      Members       Observers       Dialogue Partners       Applicants for observer status
Abbreviation SCO / ShOS
Formation 26 April 1996
Type Mutual security, political, economic organisation
Headquarters Beijing, China
Official language
Chinese, Russian
Secretary General
Dmitry Fyodorovich Mezentsev
Deputy Secretaries General

Mikhail Alekseyevich Konarovskiy
Anvar Djamaletdinovich Nasyrov

Juyin Hong
Parviz Davlatkhodjayevich Dodov
Website .org.sectscowww

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO; India and Pakistan as full members, and they are expected to join by 2016.[2][3]


  • Official names 1
  • Membership 2
  • Origins 3
  • Organisational structure 4
  • Activities 5
    • Cooperation on security 5.1
    • Military activities 5.2
    • Economic cooperation 5.3
    • Cultural cooperation 5.4
  • Summits 6
    • List of summits 6.1
  • Future membership possibilities 7
    • Current observers 7.1
    • Dialogue Partner 7.2
  • Relations with the West 8
    • Geopolitical aspects of the SCO 8.1
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

Official names

The official Russian. The official names of the organization in the two languages (abbreviations in parentheses) are:



  • Cyrillic: Шанхайская организация сотрудничества (ШОС)
  • Romanisation: Shankhayskaya organizatsiya sotrudnichestva (ShOS)


Member States[4]
Date Country Enlargement
26 April 1996  China Founders
15 June 2001  Uzbekistan First


The Shanghai Five grouping was created 26 April 1996 with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai by the heads of states of Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. According to political scientist Thomas Ambrosio, one aim was to ensure that liberal democracy could not gain ground in these countries.[7] On 24 April 1997, the same countries signed the Treaty on Reduction of Military Forces in Border Regions in a meeting in Moscow.[8]

Russian President Vladimir Putin, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Chinese President Jiang Zemin, Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev, and Tajik President Emomali Rakhmonov, at one time the leaders of the Shanghai Five.

Subsequent annual summits of the Shanghai Five group occurred in Almaty (Kazakhstan) in 1998, in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) in 1999, and in Dushanbe (Tajikistan) in 2000. At the Dushanbe summit, members agreed to "oppose intervention in other countries' internal affairs on the pretexts of 'humanitarianism' and 'protecting human rights;' and support the efforts of one another in safeguarding the five countries' national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and social stability."[9]

In 2001, the annual summit returned to Shanghai. There the five member nations first admitted Treaty of Good-Neighbourliness and Friendly Cooperation.

In June 2002, the heads of the SCO member states met in Eurasia and its population is a quarter of the world's. With observer states included, its affiliates account for about half of the world's population.

In July 2005, at its fifth and watershed summit in Astana, Kazakhstan, with representatives of India, Iran, Mongolia and Pakistan attending an SCO summit for the first time, the president of the host country, Nursultan Nazarbayev, greeted the guests in words that had never before been used in any context: "The leaders of the states sitting at this negotiation table are representatives of half of humanity".[10]

By 2007 the SCO had initiated over twenty large-scale projects related to transportation, energy and telecommunications and held regular meetings of security, military, defence, foreign affairs, economic, cultural, banking and other officials from its member states.

The SCO has established relations with the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Organisational structure

The Council of Heads of State is the top decision-making body in the SCO. This council meets at the SCO summits, which are held each year in one of the member states' capital cities. The current Council of Heads of State consists of:

The Council of Heads of Government is the second-highest council in the organisation. This council also holds annual summits, at which time members discuss issues of multilateral cooperation. The council also approves the organisation's budget.

The Council of Foreign Ministers also hold regular meetings, where they discuss the current international situation and the SCO's interaction with other international organisations.[11]

The Council of National Coordinators coordinates the multilateral cooperation of member states within the framework of the SCO's charter.

The Secretariat of the SCO is the primary executive body of the organisation. It serves to implement organisational decisions and decrees, drafts proposed documents (such as declarations and agendas), function as a document depository for the organisation, arranges specific activities within the SCO framework, and promotes and disseminates information about the SCO. It is located in Beijing. The current SCO Secretary-General is

  • Official website
  • Info SCO

External links

  • Kalra, Prajakti and Saxena, Siddharth "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Prospects of Development in Eurasia Region" Turkish Policy Quarterly, Vol 6. No.2, 2007
  • Sznajder, Ariel Pablo, "China's Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Strategy", University of California Press, May 2006
  • Oresman, Matthew, "Beyond the Battle of Talas: China's Re-emergence in Central Asia" PDF (4.74 MiB), National Defence University Press, August 2004
  • Gill, Bates and Oresman, Matthew, China's New Journey to the West: Report on China's Emergence in Central Asia and Implications for U.S. Interests, CSIS Press, August 2003
  • Fels, Enrico (2009), Assessing Eurasia's Powerhouse. An Inquiry into the Nature of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Winkler Verlag: Bochum. ISBN 978-3-89911-107-1
  • Yom, Sean L. (2002). "Power Politics in Central Asia: The Future of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". Harvard Asia Quarterly 6 (4) 48–54.
  • Stakelbeck, Frederick W., Jr. (August 8, 2005). "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation".
  • Navrozov, Lev. (February 17, 2006). "The Sino-Russian 'Shanghai Cooperation Organisation'".
  • Daly, John. (July 19, 2001). "'Shanghai Five' expands to combat Islamic radicals". Jane's Terrorism & Security Monitor.
  • Colson, Charles. (August 5, 2003). "Central Asia: Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Makes Military Debut". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  • Cohen, Dr. Ariel. (July 18, 2001). "The Russia-China Friendship and Cooperation Treaty: A Strategic Shift in Eurasia?". The Heritage Foundation.
  • Cohen, Dr. Ariel. (October 24, 2005). "Competition over Eurasia: Are the U.S. and Russia on a Collision Course?". The Heritage Foundation.
  • John Keefer Douglas, Matthew B. Nelson, and Kevin Schwartz; "Fueling the Dragon's Flame: How China's Energy Demands Affect its Relationships in the Middle East".  PDF (162 KiB), United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission, October 2006.
  • Baris Adibelli. "The Eurasia Strategy of China" IQ Publishing House, İstanbul, 2007.
  • Baris ADIBELLI, " The Great Game in Eurasian Geopolitics", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul, 2008.
  • Baris Adibelli, "Turkey-China Relations since the Ottoman Period", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul,2007.
  • Baris Adibelli, The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Dream of Turkey, Cumhuriyet Strateji,İstanbul, 2007.
  • Baris ADIBELLI, "Greater Eurasia Project", IQ Publishing House, İstanbul,2006.

Further reading

  1. ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 336.  
    Suisheng Zhao (2004). Chinese Foreign Policy: Pragmatism and Strategic Behavior. M.E. Sharpe. p. 263. Constantine Menges (19 April 2005). China: The Gathering Threat: The Gathering Threat. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 460. Martin Sieff (2009). Shifting Superpowers: The New and Emerging Relationship Between the United States, China, and India. Cato Institute. pp. 70–71. Colin Mackerras; Foundation Professor in the School of Asian and International Studies Colin Mackerras (2 September 2003). China's Ethnic Minorities and Globalisation. Routledge. p. 168. Boris Z. Rumer (1 January 2002). Central Asia: A Gathering Storm?. M.E. Sharpe. p. 58. Martin Sieff (8 March 2012). That Should Still Be Us: How Thomas Friedman's Flat World Myths Are Keeping Us Flat on Our Backs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 36.  




  2. ^ a b c d e "India, Pakistan become full SCO members".  
  3. ^ "India, Pakistan to join security group led by Russia, China". Yahoo News. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization". Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  5. ^ a b c d "SCO accepts Afghanistan as observer, Turkey dialogue partner".  
  6. ^ a b "Belarus gets observer status in Shanghai Cooperation Organization".  
  7. ^ Ambrosio (October 2008). "Catching the ‘Shanghai Spirit’: How the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Promotes Authoritarian Norms in Central Asia". Europe-Asia Studies 60 (8). 
  8. ^ Al-Qahtani, Mutlaq (2006). "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Law of International Organizations" (PDF). Chinese Journal of International Law (Oxford University Press) 5 (1): 130.  
  9. ^ Gill. "Shanghai Five: An Attempt to Counter U.S. Influence in Asia?". Brookings. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
  10. ^ Kazinform, July 5, 2005
  11. ^ Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers from Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Embassy of the Russian Federation in Malaysia
  12. ^
  13. ^ Information on Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO Website
  14. ^ Zaidi, Mujtaba Haider. "The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation and US Supremacy" African Herald Express. August 20, 2013 URL:
  15. ^ SCO to intensify fight against cross-border drug crimes
  16. ^ SCO gets ready for joint military exercise World Student Press Agency
  17. ^ Security alliances led by Russia, China link up Daily Times
  18. ^ Kazakhstan Notes Afghanistan's Emerging Security Agenda Eurasia Daily Monitor
  19. ^ Tom Gjelten (September 23, 2010). "'"Seeing The Internet As An 'Information Weapon. National Public Radio. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  20. ^ "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  21. ^ Hutzler, Charles (26 April 2006). "China, Russia, Others to Hold Joint Drills". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 June 2015 – via  
  22. ^ Yu, Bin (17 October 2007). "Common exercise, different goals". New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  23. ^ Boland, Julie. "Learning From The Shanghai Cooperation Organization's 'Peace Mission-2010' Exercise", The Brookings Institution, October 29, 2010
  24. ^ "LEAD: Central Asian powers agree to pursue free-trade zone.". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  25. ^ "China Intensifies Regional Trade Talks". Archived from the original on October 24, 2007.  International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD)
  26. ^ Joint Communique of the Council of the Governmental Heads (Prime Ministers) of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Member States University of Hawaii
  27. ^ Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Eyes Economic, Security Cooperation The Jamestown Foundation
  28. ^ SCO Ministers of Foreign Economic Activity and Trade to meet in Tashkent National Bank of Uzbekistan
  29. ^ Russia's Foreign Ministry develops concept of SCO energy club
  30. ^ Russia Urges Formation of Central Asian Energy Club Eurasianet
  31. ^ Chronicle of Main Events of "Shanghai Five" and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
  32. ^ Mehr News Agency, October 31, 2008
  33. ^ Russia Today, October 30, 2008
  34. ^ "China to provide 10-billion-dollar loan to SCO members_English_Xinhua". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  35. ^
  36. ^ Yan (June 18, 2009). "China, Russia sign five-point joint statement". Retrieved June 23, 2009. They also said that a new round of the IMF quota formula review and the reform schemes of the World Bank should be completed on time and that the emerging markets and developing countries should have a bigger say and broader representation in the international financial institutions. 
  37. ^ Culture Ministers of SCO Member States Meet in Beijing People's Daily
  38. ^ SCO Culture Ministers to Meet in Tashkent
  39. ^ Kazakhstan Backs Promotion of SCO Cultural Ties
  40. ^ a b Charter of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO Website
  41. ^ Joint Communiqué of Meeting of the Council of the Heads of the Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO Website
  42. ^ SCO vows to strengthen cooperation with its observers, dialogue partners Xinhua
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ SCO Heads of Government Council meets in Beijing
  46. ^ "SCO Meeting Expected to Boost Cooperation Among Members". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). December 2, 2012. 
  47. ^ a b Wu Jiao and Li Xiaokun (June 12, 2010). "SCO agrees deal to expand".  
  48. ^ Journal of International Affairs. 2007. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Iran: A Power-full Union. Matthew Brummer
  49. ^ "Armenia seeking observer status at Shanghai organization - News -". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  50. ^ "MINA Breaking News - SCO To Admit New Members: Iran, India, Pakistan and Mongolia". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  51. ^ "India's membership in Shanghai Cooperation Organisation initiated".  
  52. ^ "Azerbaijan asks to join a new alliance of China and Russia". 
  53. ^ "Syria applies for observer status at Shanghai security bloc — Russian Foreign Ministry".  
  54. ^ "Kiev Request For SCO Partner Status Still in Force". 
  55. ^ "Egypt applies to become dialogue partner of Shanghai security bloc — Kremlin aide".  
  56. ^ "Azerbaijan intends to become SCO observer". 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2015-08-15. 
  57. ^ a b Sri Lanka gains partnership in SCO members welcome end to terror in country
  58. ^ The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation acquires military character Kommersant
  59. ^ "Shanghai Cooperation Organisation - Towards New Dynamism". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  60. ^ NK. "India has right to join SCO, not Pakistan: Russian envoy – News". Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  61. ^ "China welcomes proposed accession of India in Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". The Times Of India. May 23, 2012. 
  62. ^ "India applies for full membership of SCO".  
  63. ^ Iran applies for membership Press TV
  64. ^
  65. ^ "Pak making tangible headway against terrorism: Gilani -". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  66. ^ [3]. Dawn News. 7 November 2011.
  67. ^ [4]. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Pakistan. 19 September 2014.
  68. ^ Syed, Baqir Sajjad (July 7, 2015). "SCO summit may begin process of Pakistan’s entry". Dawn. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  69. ^ Regulations on the Status of Dialogue Partner of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
  70. ^ Bedi, Rahul (June 2, 2007). "Sri Lanka turns to Pakistan, China for military needs". IANS ( Network). Retrieved June 2, 2007. 
  71. ^ Galip Dalay (May 14, 2013). "Turkey between Shanghai and Brussels". The New Turkey. Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  72. ^ Tannock, Charles (February 18, 2008). "'"Backing Kazakhstan's 'great game. London: Guardian Weekly. 
  73. ^ Fels, Enrico (2009), Assessing Eurasia's Powerhouse. An Inquiry into the Nature of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Winkler Verlag: Bochum, p. 23–27.
  74. ^ Ahmadinejad stresses need for a new world order Press TV
  75. ^ Anti-Western Alliance in Asia Deutsche Welle
  76. ^ "Shanghai surprise" Guardian Unlimited
  77. ^ Central Asia: China and Russia up the ante The Hindu
  78. ^ Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Summiteers Take Shots at US Presence in Central Asia Eurasianet
  79. ^ Journal of International Affairs. 2007. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Iran: A Power-full Union. Matthew Brummer
  80. ^ Tehran Times, November 20, 2008
  81. ^ "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation". July 13, 2005. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. 
  82. ^ UzReport, November 28, 2005
  83. ^ People's Daily, July 8, 2008
  84. ^ American Legion Magazine, March 1, 2010
  85. ^ Maheen Mirza, Shanghai Corporation Organisation (SCO): A New Platform – TRCB, – Article Marketing for Massive Exposure and Reward, (accessed April 7, 2010).
  86. ^ Peter Finn, "Putin Threatens Ukraine on NATO – Russian Raises Issues of U.S. Missile Shield",, February 13, 2008, archives 2010.
  87. ^ "Group Says SCO 'Vehicle' For Rights Abuses." RFE/RL, September 2, 2012.


See also

The International Federation for Human Rights has called SCO a "vehicle" for human rights violations.[87]

An article in The Washington Post in early 2008 reported that President Vladimir Putin stated that Russia could aim nuclear missiles at Ukraine if Russia's neighbour and former fraternal republic in the Soviet Union joins the NATO alliance and hosts elements of a U.S. missile defence system. "It is horrible to say and even horrible to think that, in response to the deployment of such facilities in Ukrainian territory, which cannot theoretically be ruled out, Russia could target its missile systems at Ukraine", Putin said at a joint news conference with Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko, who was visiting the Kremlin. "Imagine this just for a second".[85][86]

Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao has concluded that the United States is manoeuvring "to preserve its status as the world's sole superpower and will not allow any country the chance to pose a challenge to it".[84]

A Chinese daily expressed the matter in these terms: "The Declaration points out that the SCO member countries have the ability and responsibility to safeguard the security of the Central Asian region, and calls on Western countries to leave Central Asia. That is the most noticeable signal given by the Summit to the world".[83]

In November 2005 Russian Foreign Minister [82]

At a 2005 summit in Kazakhstan the SCO issued a Declaration of Heads of Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation which addressed their "concerns" and contained an elaboration of the organisation's principles. It included: "The heads of the member states point out that, against the backdrop of a contradictory process of globalisation, multilateral cooperation, which is based on the principles of equal right and mutual respect, non-intervention in internal affairs of sovereign states, non-confrontational way of thinking and consecutive movement towards democratisation of international relations, contributes to overall peace and security, and call upon the international community, irrespective of its differences in ideology and social structure, to form a new concept of security based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and interaction."[81]

Iranian writer, NATO in Central Asia".[80]

There have been many discussions and commentaries about the geopolitical nature of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Matthew Brummer, in the Journal of International Affairs, tracks the implications of SCO expansion into the Persian Gulf.[79]

Geopolitical aspects of the SCO

The SCO has made no direct comments against the U.S. or its military presence in the region; however, some indirect statements at the past summits have been viewed by the western media as "thinly veiled swipes at Washington".[78]

At the Astana summit in July 2005, with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq foreshadowing an indefinite presence of U.S. forces in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, the SCO urged the U.S. to set a timetable for withdrawing its troops from SCO member states. Shortly afterwards, Uzbekistan asked the U.S. to leave the K-2 air base.[77]

The United States applied for observer status in the SCO, but was rejected in 2005.[76]

[75] While the SCO (together with the

Western media observers believe that one of the original purposes of the SCO was to serve as a counterbalance to NATO and in particular to avoid conflicts that would allow the United States to intervene in areas bordering both Russia and China.[72][73] And although not a member state, the President of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad used his speeches at the SCO to make verbal attacks against the United States.[74]

Relations with the West

  •   [70][57]
  •   [71]

The position of Dialogue Partner was created in 2008 in accordance with Article 14 of the SCO Charter of 7 June 2002. This article regards Dialogue Partner as a state or an organisation who shares the goals and principles of the SCO and wishes to establish relations of equal mutually beneficial partnership with the Organisation.[69]

Afghan President Hamid Karzai at an SCO summit in 2004.

Dialogue Partner

  •  Afghanistan received observer status at the 2012 SCO summit in Beijing, China on June 6, 2012.[5]
  •  Sergei Ivanov voiced doubt on the probability of Belarus' membership, saying that Belarus was a purely European country.[58] Despite this, Belarus was accepted as a Dialogue Partner at the 2009 SCO Summit in Yekaterinburg, and after applying in 2012, was granted observer status in 2015.[6]
  •   [2] and was approved for membership in July 2015. It is expected to join by 2016.[62] India applied for membership in September 2014,[61] China has welcomed India's accession to the SCO.[60][59]
  •   [47] However, because of ongoing sanctions levied by the United Nations, it is blocked from admission as a new member. The SCO stated that any country under U.N. sanctions cannot be admitted.[63]
  •  Mongolia became the first country to receive observer status at the 2004 Tashkent Summit. Pakistan, India and Iran received observer status at the 2005 SCO summit in Astana, Kazakhstan on 5 July 2005.
  •   [2] and was approved in July 2015. It is expected to join by 2016.[68] Pakistan applied for membership in 2006,[67] At the SCO Summit in 2014, China also expressed support for Pakistan's application for full membership.[66]
Putin with representatives from Iran and Mongolia, observers in the SCO, at a meeting of the Council of Heads of Government in 2005.

Current observers

[56][55] have applied for dialogue partner status.[54]Ukraine and Maldives, Egypt while [53] has also submitted an application for observer status,Syria [52] Meanwhile, in 2012 [51][50] Except for Afghanistan, the observers are moving towards being accorded full member status.

[49] would like to obtain an observer status in the SCO.Armenia said during his meeting with his Chinese counterpart that Tigran Sargsyan In early September 2013 Armenian Prime Minister [48] Several states, however, participate as [47] In June 2010, the SCO approved the procedure of admitting new members, though new members have yet to be admitted.

Future membership possibilities

Heads of Government
Date Country Location
September 2001  Kazakhstan Almaty
23 September 2003  China Beijing
23 September 2004  Kyrgyzstan Bishkek
26 October 2005  Russia Moscow
15 September 2006  Tajikistan Dushanbe
2 November 2007  Uzbekistan Tashkent
30 October 2008  Kazakhstan Astana
14 October 2009  China Beijing[44]
25 November 2010  Tajikistan Dushanbe[45]
7 November 2011  Russia Saint Petersburg
5 December 2012  Kyrgyzstan Bishkek[46]
29 November 2013  Uzbekistan Tashkent
14–15 December 2014  Kazakhstan Astana
Heads of State
Date Country Location
14 June 2001  China Shanghai
7 June 2002  Russia Saint Petersburg
29 May 2003  Russia Moscow
17 June 2004  Uzbekistan Tashkent
5 July 2005  Kazakhstan Astana
15 June 2006  China Shanghai
16 August 2007  Kyrgyzstan Bishkek
28 August 2008  Tajikistan Dushanbe
15–16 June 2009  Russia Yekaterinburg
10–11 June 2010  Uzbekistan Tashkent[41]
14–15 June 2011  Kazakhstan Astana[42]
6–7 June 2012  China Beijing
13 September 2013  Kyrgyzstan Bishkek
11–12 September 2014  Tajikistan Dushanbe
9–10 July 2015  Russia Ufa
2016  Uzbekistan (proposed)[43]

List of summits

According to the Charter of the SCO, summits of the Council of Heads of State shall be held annually at alternating venues. The locations of these summits follow the alphabetical order of the member state's name in Russian.[40] The charter also dictates that the Council of Heads of Government (that is, the Prime Ministers) shall meet annually in a place decided upon by the council members. The Council of Foreign Ministers is supposed to hold a summit one month before the annual summit of Heads of State. Extraordinary meetings of the Council of Foreign Ministers can be called by any two member states.[40]

Summit of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) in 2007.


An SCO Arts Festival and Exhibition was held for the first time during the Astana Summit in 2005. Kazakhstan has also suggested an SCO folk dance festival to take place in 2008, in Astana.[39]

Cultural cooperation also occurs in the SCO framework. Culture ministers of the SCO met for the first time in Beijing on April 12, 2002, signing a joint statement for continued cooperation. The third meeting of the Culture Ministers took place in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, on 27–28 April 2006.[37][38]

Cultural cooperation

On 16 June 2009, at the Yekaterinburg Summit, China announced plans to provide a US$10 billion loan to SCO member states to shore up the struggling economies of its members amid the global financial crisis.[34][35] The summit was held together with the first BRIC summit, and the China-Russia joint statement said that they want a bigger quota in the International Monetary Fund.[36]

Leaders present at the SCO summit in Yekaterinburg, Russia in 2009.
"We now clearly see the defectiveness of the monopoly in world finance and the policy of economic selfishness. To solve the current problem Russia will take part in changing the global financial structure so that it will be able to guarantee stability and prosperity in the world and to ensure progress.
"The world is seeing the emergence of a qualitatively different geo-political situation, with the emergence of new centers of economic growth and political influence.
"We will witness and take part in the transformation of the global and regional security and development architectures adapted to new realities of the 21st century, when stability and prosperity are becoming inseparable notions."[33]

The address by Putin also included these comments:

At the 2007 SCO summit Iranian Vice President Parviz Davudi addressed an initiative that has been garnering greater interest and assuming a heightened sense of urgency when he said, "The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation is a good venue for designing a new banking system which is independent from international banking systems".[32]

[31] However, on 28 August 2008 summit it was stated that "Against the backdrop of a slowdown in the growth of world economy pursuing a responsible currency and financial policy, control over the capital flowing, ensuring food and energy security have been gaining special significance".[30] The need for this "club" was reiterated by Moscow at an SCO summit in November 2007. Other SCO members, however, have not committed themselves to the idea.[29], the representative of the Russian Foreign Ministry announced that Russia is developing plans for an SCO "Energy Club".Almaty, an international conference held in The SCO: Results and Perspectives On 30 November 2006, at [28][27] On 26 October 2005, during the

All SCO members but China are also members of the Eurasian Economic Community. A Framework Agreement to enhance economic cooperation was signed by the SCO member states on 23 September 2003. At the same meeting the PRC's Premier, Wen Jiabao, proposed a long-term objective to establish a free trade area in the SCO, while other more immediate measures would be taken to improve the flow of goods in the region.[24][25] A follow up plan with 100 specific actions was signed one year later, on 23 September 2004.[26]

Economic cooperation

On June 4, 2014, in the Tajik capital Collective Security Treaty Organization. It is still being debated.

The SCO has served as a platform for larger military announcements by members. During the 2007 war games in Russia, with leaders of SCO member states in attendance including Chinese President Hu Jintao, Russia's President Vladimir Putin used the occasion to take advantage of a captive audience: Russian strategic bombers, he said, would resume regular long-range patrols for the first time since the Cold War. "Starting today, such tours of duty will be conducted regularly and on the strategic scale", Putin said. "Our pilots have been grounded for too long. They are happy to start a new life".

There have been a number of SCO joint military exercises. The first of these was held in 2003, with the first phase taking place in Kazakhstan and the second in China. Since then China and Russia have teamed up for large-scale war games in 2005 ([21][22] Russian Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov said that the exercises would be transparent and open to media and the public. Following the war games' successful completion, Russian officials began speaking of India joining such exercises in the future and the SCO taking on a military role. Peace Mission 2010, conducted September 9–25 at Kazakhstan's Matybulak training area, saw over 5,000 personnel from China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan conduct joint planning and operational maneuvers.[23]

Over the past few years, the organisation's activities have expanded to include increased military cooperation, intelligence sharing, and counterterrorism.[20]

SCO leaders at Peace Mission 2007. Hu Jintao, Vladimir Putin, Nursultan Nazarbayev and Islam Karimov

Military activities

The organisation is also redefining cyberwarfare, saying that the dissemination of information "harmful to the spiritual, moral and cultural spheres of other states" should be considered a "security threat". An accord adopted in 2009 defined "information war", in part, as an effort by a state to undermine another's "political, economic, and social systems".[19]

[18] In October 2007, the SCO signed an agreement with the

Grigory Logninov claimed in April 2006 that the SCO has no plans to become a military bloc; nonetheless he argued that the increased threats of "terrorism, extremism and separatism" make necessary a full-scale involvement of armed forces.[16]

At 16–17 June 2004 SCO summit, held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, the Regional Antiterrorism Structure (RATS) was established. On 21 April 2006, the SCO announced plans to fight cross-border drug crimes under the counter-terrorism rubric.[15]

The SCO is primarily centered on its member nations' Central Asian security-related concerns, often describing the main threats it confronts as being terrorism, separatism and extremism. However evidence is growing that its activities in the area of social development of its member states is increasing fast.[14]

Cooperation on security


The Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS), headquartered in three evils of terrorism, separatism and extremism. The Head of RATS is elected to a three-year term. Each member state also sends a permanent representative to RATS.[13]


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