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Sudan I

Sudan I
Sudan I
Names
IUPAC name
1-phenylazonaphth-2-ol
Identifiers
 Y
ChEBI  Y
ChemSpider  Y
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG  N
Properties
C16H12N2O
Molar mass 248.28 g/mol
Melting point 131 °C (268 °F; 404 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

Sudan I (also commonly known as CI Solvent Yellow 14 and Solvent Orange R), is an azo dye. It is an intensely orange-red solid that is added to colourise waxes, oils, petrol, solvents and polishes. Sudan I has also been adopted for colouring various foodstuffs, especially curry powder and chili powder, although the use of Sudan I in foods is now banned in many countries, because Sudan I, Sudan III, and Sudan IV have been classified as category 3 carcinogens (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans)[1] by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.[2] Sudan I is still used in some orange-coloured smoke formulations and as a colouring for cotton refuse used in chemistry experiments.

Contents

  • Toxicology 1
    • Food scare 1.1
  • Synonyms and brand names 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Toxicology

Sudan I is genotoxic. It is also carcinogenic in rats.[3] Comparisons between experimental animals and human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) strongly suggest animal carcinogenicity data can be extrapolated to humans.[4]

Sudan I is also present as an impurity in Sunset Yellow, which is its disulfonated water-soluble version.

Food scare

In February 2005, Sudan I gained attention, particularly in the United Kingdom. A Worcestershire sauce produced by Premier Foods was found to be contaminated with Sudan I. The origin was traced to adulterated chili powder.[5] The contamination was discovered by the Food Standards Agency.

Synonyms and brand names

  • Atul Orange R
  • Benzene-1-azo-2-naphthol
  • Brasilazina oil Orange
  • Brilliant oil Orange R
  • Calcogas M
  • Calcogas Orange NC
  • Calco oil Orange 7078
  • Campbelline oil Orange
  • Carminaph
  • Ceres Orange R
  • CerotinOrange G
  • CI Solvent Yellow 14
  • C.I. Solvent Yellow 14
  • Dispersol Yellow PP
  • Dunkelgelb
  • Enial Orange I
  • Fast oil Orange
  • Fast oil Orange I
  • Fast Orange
  • Fat Orange I
  • Fett Orange 4A
  • Grasal Orange
  • Grasan Orange R
  • Hidaco oil Orange
  • Lacquer Orange VG
  • MotiOrange R
  • Oil Orange
  • Oleal Orange R
  • Orange à l'huile
  • Orange insoluble OLG
  • Orange 3RA soluble in grease
  • Orange resenole No. 3
  • Orange R fat soluble
  • Organol Orange
  • Orient oil Orange PS
  • Petrol Orange Y
  • 1-(Phenylazo)-2-naphthol
  • Plastoresin Orange F4A
  • PyronalOrange
  • Resinol Orange R
  • Resoform Orange G
  • Sansei Orange G
  • Scharlach B
  • Silotras Orange TR
  • Solvent Yellow 14
  • Somalia Orange I
  • Sudan I
  • SpiritOrange
  • Spirit Orange
  • Spirit Yellow I
  • Stearix Orange
  • Sudan J
  • Sudan Orange R
  • Sudan Orange RA
  • Sudan Orange RA new
  • Tertrogras Orange SV
  • Toyo Oil Orange
  • Waxakol Orange GL
  • Waxoline Yellow I
  • Waxoline Yellow IM
  • Waxoline Yellow IP
  • Waxoline Yellow IS

See also

References

  1. ^ http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php
  2. ^ Refat NA, Ibrahim ZS, Moustafa GG, Sakamoto KQ, Ishizuka M, Fujita S (2008). "The induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 by sudan dyes". J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 22 (2): 77–84.  
  3. ^ Larsen, John Chr. "Legal and illegal colors" Trends in Food Science & Technology (2008), 19(Suppl. 1), S60-S65. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2008.07.008
  4. ^ Stiborová M, Martínek V, Rýdlová H, Hodek P, Frei E (October 2002). "Sudan I is a potential carcinogen for humans: evidence for its metabolic activation and detoxication by human recombinant cytochrome P450 1A1 and liver microsomes". Cancer Res. 62 (20): 5678–84.  
  5. ^ "Sudan outraged at namesake dye". BBC. 2005-03-04. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 

External links

  • BBC NEWS | Health | Food alert on cancer-causing dye
  • Food Standards Agency - Sudan dyes
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