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Tolperisone

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Tolperisone

Tolperisone
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-methyl-1-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(1-piperidyl)propan-1-one
Clinical data
Trade names Mydocalm and others
AHFS/Drugs.com
Legal status
  • (Prescription only)
Routes of
administration
Oral, parenteral
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Liver, kidney
Biological half-life 1st phase: 2 hrs
2nd phase: 12 hrs
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  YesY
ATC code M02 M03
PubChem CID:
UNII  YesY
KEGG  YesY
ChEMBL  N
Chemical data
Formula C16H23NO
Molecular mass 245.36 g/mol
 N   

Tolperisone, a piperidine derivative, is a centrally acting muscle relaxant. Trade names include Biocalm, Muscodol, Mydeton, Mydocalm, Mydoflex, Myolax, Myoxan and Viveo.

Contents

  • Clinical use 1
  • Contraindications and cautions 2
  • Side effects 3
  • Overdose 4
  • Interactions 5
  • Mechanism of action 6
  • Pharmacokinetics 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Clinical use

In Tolperisone is indicated for use in the treatment of pathologically increased tone of the cross-striated muscle caused by neurological diseases (damage of the pyramidal tract, multiple sclerosis, myelopathy, encephalomyelitis) and of spastic paralysis and other encephalopathies manifested with muscular dystonia.[1][2]

Other possible uses include:

Contraindications and cautions

Manufacturers report that tolperisone should not be used in patients with myasthenia gravis. Only limited data are available regarding the safety in children, youths, during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It is not known whether tolperisone is excreted into mother's milk.[1][2]

Side effects

Adverse effects occur in fewer than 1% of patients and include muscle weakness, headache, arterial hypotension, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and dry mouth. All effects are reversible.[1][2] Allergic reactions occur in fewer than 0.1% of patient and include skin rash, hives, Quincke's edema, and in some cases anaphylactic shock.[1][3][4][5]

Overdose

Excitability has been noted after ingestion of high doses by children.[1] In suicide studies of three isolated cases, it is believed that ingestion of tolperisone was the cause of death.[6]

Interactions

Tolperisone does not have a significant potential for interactions with other pharmaceutical drugs. It cannot be excluded that combination with other centrally acting muscle relaxants, benzodiazepines or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may make a dose reduction necessary in some patients.[1][2]

Mechanism of action

Tolperisone is a centrally acting muscle relaxant that acts at the reticular formation in the brain stem[1] by blocking voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels.[7][8]

Pharmacokinetics

Tolperisone is absorbed nearly completely from the gut and reaches its peak blood plasma concentration after 1.5 hours. It is extensively metabolised in the liver and kidneys. The substance is excreted via the kidneys in two phases; the first with a half-life of two hours, and the second with a half-life of 12 hours.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h
  2. ^ a b c d
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^

External links

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