World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Unclassified language

Article Id: WHEBN0001122584
Reproduction Date:

Title: Unclassified language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Laal language, Language isolate, Dompo language, Gomba language, Kembra language
Collection: Unclassified Languages
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Unclassified language

Unclassified languages are languages whose genetic affiliation has not been established by means of historical linguistics. If this state of affairs continues after significant study of the language and efforts to relate it to other languages, as in the case of Basque, it is termed a language isolate; an unclassified language is therefore one which may belong to an established family once better data or research is available. Languages can be unclassified for a variety of reasons, mostly due to a lack of reliable data but sometimes due to the confounding influence of language contact. Some poorly known extinct languages, such as Gutian, are simply unclassifiable.

Contents

  • Classification challenges 1
  • Examples by reason 2
    • Absence of data 2.1
    • Scarcity of data 2.2
    • Unrelated to nearby languages and not commonly examined 2.3
    • Basic vocabulary unrelated to other languages 2.4
    • Not closely related to other languages and no academic consensus 2.5
    • Languages of dubious existence 2.6
  • See also 3
  • External links 4

Classification challenges

An example of a language that has caused multiple problems for classification is Mimi of Decorse in Chad. This language is only attested in a single word list collected ca. 1900. At first it was thought to be a Maban language, because of similarities to Maba, the first Maban language to be described. However, as other languages of the Maban family were described, it became clear that the similarities were solely with Maba itself, and the relationship was too distant for Mimi to be related specifically to Maba and not equally to the other Maban languages. The obvious similarities are therefore now thought to be due to borrowings from Maba, which is the socially dominant language in the area. When such loans are discounted, there is much less data to classify Mimi with, and what does remain is not particularly similar to any other language or language family. Mimi might therefore be a language isolate, or perhaps a member of some other family related to Maban in the proposed but as-yet undemonstrated Nilo-Saharan phylum. It would be easier to address the problem with better data, but no-one has been able to find speakers of the language again.

It also happens that a language may be unclassified within an established family. That is, it may be obvious that it is, say, a Malayo-Polynesian language, but not clear in which branch of Malayo-Polynesian it belongs. When a family consists of many similar languages with great degree of confusing contact, a large number of languages may be effectively unclassified. Families where this is a substantial problem include Malayo-Polynesian, Bantu, Pama–Nyungan, and Arawakan.

Examples by reason

There are hundreds of unclassified languages, mostly extinct. There are relatively few that are still spoken. In the following list, extinct languages are labeled with a dagger (†).

Absence of data

  • Sentinelese (Andaman Islands; no contact for 300 years, and not a single word is known)
  • Weyto† (Ethiopia)
  • Nam† (Chinese–Tibetan border; data is undeciphered)
  • Indus Valley Language (Northern Indian subcontinent 33rd–13th century BC; script indecipherable)
  • Cypro-Minoan language (Cyprus ca. 15th - 10th centuries BC; script indecipherable)

Scarcity of data

Unrelated to nearby languages and not commonly examined

Basic vocabulary unrelated to other languages

Not closely related to other languages and no academic consensus

Languages of dubious existence

  • Oropom (Uganda) (extinct, if it existed)
  • Imraguen (Mauritania)
  • Nemadi (Mauritania)
  • Rer Bare (Ethiopia) (extinct, if it existed)
  • Wutana (Nigeria) (extinct, if it existed)

Some 'languages' turn out to be fabricated, as Kukurá of Brazil.

See also

External links

  • Ethnologue: Unclassified languages
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.