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Title: Vexilloid  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Personal standard of Adolf Hitler, Standard, Banner of Poland, Flag, Double-headed eagle
Collection: Vexillology
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The vexillum of the Roman Empire, emblazoned with S·P·Q·R (senātus populusque Rōmānus), "senate and people of Rome".

"Vexilloid" is a term used tenuously to describe vexillary (flag-like) objects used by countries, organizations, or individuals as a form of representation other than flags. Coined by Whitney Smith in 1958, he defined a vexilloid as:

An object which functions as a flag but differs from it in some respect, usually appearance. Vexilloids are characteristic of traditional societies and often consist of a staff with an emblem, such as a carved animal, at the top.

The strictest definition specified in the ultimate sentence describes a vexillum. In a broader sense (that is, taking only Smith's first sentence into account), "vexilloid" can be used of any banner (vexillary object) which is not a flag. Thus it includes vexilla, banderoles, pennons, streamers, standards, and gonfalons.

The first most primitive proto-vexilloids in pre-historic times, and the precursors of all later vexilloids and, after that, flags, may have been simply pieces of cloth dipped in the blood of a defeated enemy.[1]

The use of flags replaced the use of vexilloids for general purposes during late

  • Entry on Vexilloids in the Flags of the World website:

External links

  1. ^ Vexilloids, Flags of the World .
  2. ^  
  3. ^ Vexilloid of the Carthaginian Empire:
  4. ^ Wiesehofer, Joseph Ancient Persia New York:1996 I.B. Tauris
  5. ^ Website honoring Dr. Kourosh Aryamanesh—Depicts images of the Derafsh Kaviani:
  6. ^ Image of the Derafsh Kaviani:
  7. ^ Hitler and the Rise of Nazism (Museum of World War II--Navick, Massachusetts, USA):
  8. ^ Image of an SS vexilloid:




  • In Nazi Germany, also referred to as the Third Reich, the SS used vexilloids which they marched with in street parades and at the Nuremberg rallies. These vexilloids were topped with an eagle and a swastika and with the name of the particular locale of the SS contingent carrying the vexilloids. Inscribed on them was the slogan Deutschland Erwache which means Germany Awake.[7][8]

Vexilloids of modern empires

  • The vexilloid of the Mongol Empire, the only vexilloid of an empire to be three-dimensional rather than mostly a flat surface, the "Yöson Khölt tsagaan tug" (Mongolian: Есөн хөлт цагаан туг) or the "Nine Base White Banners", was composed of nine flag poles decorated with nine off-white horse tail hairs hanging from a round surface with a flame or trident-like shape on the top at the center. The Nine White Banners was a peacetime emblem used by the Khan in front of his yurt. The war flag of the Mongol Empire was the same as the banner at right, except the horse tails were off-black instead of off-white as they were cut from black instead of white horses.
Emblem of the Palaiologos dynasty and the Byzantine Empire

Vexilloids of medieval empires

  • The vexilloid of Carthage most probably consisted of a spear with a disk and crescent (points upwards), symbolizing the god Baal (sun = disk) and the goddess Tanit (moon = crescent).[3]
  • The vexillum of Ancient Rome, shown at the top right of this article, displayed the slogan S·P·Q·R (senātus populusque Rōmānus), "the Senate and the Roman people," in gold on a field of crimson.
  • The Sassanian Empire, which is called Eran Shahr (Aryan Empire) in Middle Persian,[4] used a symbol similar to the sun cross on its vexilloid, which is called the Derafsh Kaviani.[5][6]
  • The tugh of Central Asian and Turkic peoples of the pre-Ottoman and Ottoman periods.
Illustration of the Ashoka Chakra, as depicted on the National flag of the Republic of India.
The Vergina Sun was displayed on the vexilloid of Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire
The vexilloid of Cyrus the Great, Emperor of the Achaemenid Empire

Vexilloids of ancient empires


  • Vexilloids of ancient empires 1
  • Vexilloids of medieval empires 2
  • Vexilloids of modern empires 3
  • Source 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


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