World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

2011 AFC Asian Cup

2011 AFC Asian Cup
كأس آسيا ٢٠١١
Tournament details
Host country  Qatar
Dates 7 January – 29 January
Teams 16
Venue(s) (in 2 host cities)
Final positions
Champions  Japan (4th title)
Runners-up  Australia
Third place  South Korea
Fourth place  Uzbekistan
Tournament statistics
Matches played 32
Goals scored 90 (2.81 per match)
Attendance 405,361 (12,668 per match)
Top scorer(s) Koo Ja-Cheol (5 goals)
Best player Keisuke Honda
Results of the 2011 AFC Asian Cup.

The 2011 AFC Asian Cup finals were held in Qatar on 7–29 January 2011.[1][2] It was the fifteenth time the tournament has been held, and the second time it has been hosted by Qatar, the other being the 1988 AFC Asian Cup. Japan won the cup after a 1–0 win against Australia, and earned the right to compete in the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup in Brazil as the representative from AFC.[3][4]

A television viewing audience of 484 million in 80 countries across the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, North America and North Africa witnessed Japan defeat Australia 1–0 in the final.[5]

Contents

  • Host selection 1
  • Qualification 2
    • List of qualified teams 2.1
  • Draw 3
    • Seeding 3.1
  • Venues 4
  • Match ball 5
  • Officials 6
  • Squads 7
  • Group stage 8
    • Tie-breaking criteria 8.1
    • Group A 8.2
    • Group B 8.3
    • Group C 8.4
    • Group D 8.5
  • Knockout stage 9
    • Quarter-finals 9.1
    • Semi-finals 9.2
    • Third place playoff 9.3
    • Final 9.4
  • Awards 10
    • Winners 10.1
    • Individual Awards 10.2
  • Scorers 11
    • Team of the tournament 11.1
  • Final positions 12
  • Theme song 13
  • Concerns and controversies 14
  • References 15
  • External links 16

Host selection

Voting results
Country Votes
 Qatar 6
 Iran 5
 India 1

Qatar, India and Iran all lodged interest in hosting the 2011 AFC Asian Cup,[6] while Australia also considered making a late bid.[7] Qatar officially submitted their bid on 19 June 2006,[8] while India withdrew their interest and Iran failed to submit proper documentation for their bid on time.[9]

Qatar was announced as host nation on 29 July 2007, during the 2007 AFC Asian Cup in Jakarta, Indonesia. Due to FIFA regulations stating that confederation events can be hosted either in January or July, and July being peak summer heat in the Middle East, it was also announced that the tournament would be held in January of that year.[1][2]

Qualification

The teams finishing first, second and third in the 2007 AFC Asian Cup, and the host nation for the 2011 competition, received automatic byes to the finals. They were joined by the top two finishers in each of five qualifying groups. The AFC Challenge Cup acted as a further qualification competition for eligible countries within the emerging and developing category of member associations. The winners of the AFC Challenge Cup competitions in 2008 and 2010 qualified automatically to the 2011 AFC Asian Cup finals.

The final day of qualification was 3 March 2010.

List of qualified teams

Final qualification status
  Team qualified for Asian Cup
  Team failed to qualify
Country Qualified as Date qualification was secured Previous appearances in tournament12
 Qatar Hosts 29 July 2007 7 (1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 2000, 2004, 2007)
 Iraq 2007 AFC Asian Cup winner 25 July 2007 6 (1972, 1976, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2007)
 Saudi Arabia 2007 AFC Asian Cup runner-up 25 July 2007 7 (1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2007)
 South Korea 2007 AFC Asian Cup third place 28 July 2007 11 (1956, 1960, 1964, 1972, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2007)
 India 2008 AFC Challenge Cup winner 13 August 2008 2 (1964, 1984)
 Uzbekistan Group C runner-up 18 November 2009 4 (1996, 2000, 2004, 2007)
 Syria Group D winner 18 November 2009 4 (1980, 1984, 1988, 1996)
 Iran Group E winner 6 January 2010 11 (1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2007)
 China PR Group D runner-up 6 January 2010 9 (1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2007)
 Japan Group A winner 6 January 2010 6 (1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2007)
 Bahrain Group A runner-up 6 January 2010 3 (1988, 2004, 2007)
 United Arab Emirates Group C winner 6 January 2010 7 (1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2004, 2007)
 North Korea 2010 AFC Challenge Cup winner 27 February 2010 2 (1980, 1992)
 Australia Group B winner 3 March 2010 1 (2007)
 Kuwait Group B runner-up 3 March 2010 8 (1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1996, 2000, 2004)
 Jordan Group E runner-up 3 March 2010 1 (2004)
1 Bold indicates champion for that year
2 Italic indicates host

Draw

The draw for the AFC Asian Cup 2011 was held on 23 April 2010 in Doha, Qatar. Qatar were seeded among the top group.[10][11]

Seeding

Seeding was announced on 22 April 2010. Qatar were automatically placed in Group A.[12]

Pot 1 (Host and Seeds) Pot 2 Pot 3 Pot 4

 Qatar
 Iraq
 Saudi Arabia
 South Korea

 Japan
 Australia
 Iran
 Uzbekistan

 China PR
 United Arab Emirates
 Bahrain
 Jordan

 Syria
 Kuwait
 India
 North Korea

Venues

Members of the AFC Organising Committee for AFC Asian Cup 2011 have agreed the use of five stadiums for the 2011 tournament.[13]

Doha Al Rayyan Doha
Khalifa International Stadium Ahmed bin Ali Stadium Thani bin Jassim Stadium
Capacity: 40,000 Capacity: 44,740 Capacity: 44,740
Doha Doha
Suheim Bin Hamad Stadium Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium
Capacity: 12,000 Capacity: 14,000

Match ball

The Nike Total 90 Tracer was the official match ball of the tournament.[14]

Officials

Twelve referees and twenty four assistants were selected for the tournament:[15]

Number Referee Assistants
1 Ben Williams Benjamin Wilson Hakan Anaz
2 Yuichi Nishimura Toru Sagara Toshiyuki Nagi
3 Kim Dong-jin Jeong Hae-sang Jang Jun-mo
4 Subkhiddin Mohd Salleh Mu Yuxin Mohd Sabri Bin Mat Daud
5 Abdullah Al Hilali Bakhadyr Kochkarov Hamed Al Mayahi
6 Abdulrahman Abdou Mohammad Dharman Hassan Al Thawadi
7 Mohsen Torky Hassan Kamranifar Reza Sokhandan
8 Malik Abdul Bashir Jeffrey Goh Haja Maidin
9 Nawaf Shukralla Khaled Al Allan Mohammed Jawdat Nehlawi
10 Ali Al Badwawi Saleh Al Marzouqi Yaser Marad
11 Ravshan Irmatov Abdukhamidullo Rasulov Rafael Ilyasov
Standby Referees
Country Standby Referees
Iran Alireza Faghani
Uzbekistan Valentin Kovalenko
Qatar Abdullah Balideh

Squads

Each country's final squad of 23 players was submitted by 28 December 2010.[16]

Group stage

All times are Arabian Standard Time (AST) – UTC+3

Tie-breaking criteria

The teams are ranked according to points (3 points for a win, 1 point for a tie, 0 points for a loss) and tie breakers are in following order:[16]

  1. Greater number of points obtained in the group matches between the teams concerned;
  2. Goal difference resulting from the group matches between the teams concerned;
  3. Greater number of goals scored in the group matches between the teams concerned;
  4. Goal difference in all the group matches;
  5. Greater number of goals scored in all the group matches;
  6. Kicks from the penalty mark if only two teams are involved and they are both on the field of play;
  7. Fewer score calculated according to the number of yellow and red cards received in the group matches; (1 point for each yellow card, 3 points for each red card as a consequence of two yellow cards, 3 points for each direct red card, 4 points for each yellow card followed by a direct red card)
  8. Drawing of lots.
Key to colours in group tables
Group winners and runners-up advanced to the quarter-finals

Group A

Uzbekistan surprised the group by defeating Qatar in the opening match and defeating highly favoured Kuwait. Qatar picked themselves up after the opening loss and won the remaining two games.

Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
 Uzbekistan 3 2 1 0 6 3 +3 7
 Qatar 3 2 0 1 5 2 +3 6
 China PR 3 1 1 1 4 4 0 4
 Kuwait 3 0 0 3 1 7 −6 0
7 January 2011
19:15
Qatar  0 – 2  Uzbekistan
Report Ahmedov Goal 59'
Djeparov Goal 77'
Khalifa International Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 37,143
Referee: Yuichi Nishimura (Japan)

8 January 2011
16:15
Kuwait  0 – 2  China PR
Report Zhang Linpeng Goal 58'
Deng Zhuoxiang Goal 66'
Al Gharafa Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 7,423
Referee: Ben Williams (Australia)

12 January 2011
16:15
Uzbekistan  2 – 1  Kuwait
Shatskikh Goal 41'
Djeparov Goal 65'
Report Al-Mutawa Goal 49' (pen.)
Al Gharafa Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 3,481
Referee: Nawaf Shukralla (Bahrain)

12 January 2011
19:15
China PR  0 – 2  Qatar
Report Ahmed Goal 27'45+1'

16 January 2011
19:15
Qatar  3 – 0  Kuwait
Mohammed Goal 12'
El Sayed Goal 16'
Fábio César Goal 86'
Report

16 January 2011
19:15
China PR  2 – 2  Uzbekistan
Yu Hai Goal 6'
Hao Junmin Goal 56'
Report Ahmedov Goal 30'
Geynrikh Goal 46'
Al Gharafa Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 3,529
Referee: Abdullah Al Hilali (Oman)

Group B

Jordan were major underdogs going into the group against powerhouses Japan and 2007 runners up Saudi Arabia, but surprised the football world by taking second place in the group.

Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
 Japan 3 2 1 0 8 2 +6 7
 Jordan 3 2 1 0 4 2 +2 7
 Syria 3 1 0 2 4 5 −1 3
 Saudi Arabia 3 0 0 3 1 8 −7 0
9 January 2011
16:15
Japan  1 – 1  Jordan
Yoshida Goal 90+2' Report Abdel Fattah Goal 44'
Qatar SC Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 6,255
Referee: Malik Abdul Bashir (Singapore)

9 January 2011
19:15
Saudi Arabia  1 – 2  Syria
Al Jassim Goal 60' Report Al Hussain Goal 38'63'
Ahmed bin Ali Stadium, Al Rayyan
Attendance: 15,768
Referee: Kim Dong-Jin (South Korea)

13 January 2011
16:15
Jordan  1 – 0  Saudi Arabia
Abdul-Rahman Goal 42' Report
Ahmed bin Ali Stadium, Al Rayyan
Attendance: 17,349
Referee: Ali Al Badwawi (UAE)

13 January 2011
19:15
Syria  1 – 2  Japan
Al Khatib Goal 76' (pen.) Report Hasebe Goal 35'
K. Honda Goal 82' (pen.)
Qatar SC Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 10,453
Referee: Mohsen Torky (Iran)

17 January 2011
16:15
Saudi Arabia  0 – 5  Japan
Report Okazaki Goal 8'13'80'
Maeda Goal 19'51'

17 January 2011
16:15
Jordan  2 – 1  Syria
Diab Goal 30' (o.g.)
Al Saify Goal 59'
Report Al Zeno Goal 15'
Qatar SC Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 9,849
Referee: Abdulrahman Abdou (Qatar)

Group C

Group C went down exactly as most people predicted with the 2 giants in Australia and South Korea going through.

Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
 Australia 3 2 1 0 6 1 +5 7
 South Korea 3 2 1 0 7 3 +4 7
 Bahrain 3 1 0 2 6 5 +1 3
 India 3 0 0 3 3 13 −10 0
10 January 2011
16:15
India  0 – 4  Australia
Report Cahill Goal 11'65'
Kewell Goal 24'
Holman Goal 45+2'
Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 9,783
Referee: Ali Al Badwawi (UAE)

10 January 2011
19:15
South Korea  2 – 1  Bahrain
Koo Ja-Cheol Goal 40'52' Report Aaish Goal 85' (pen.)
Al Gharafa Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 6,669
Referee: Abdullah Al Hilali (Oman)

14 January 2011
16:15
Australia  1 – 1  South Korea
Jedinak Goal 62' Report Koo Ja-Cheol Goal 24'
Al Gharafa Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 15,526
Referee: Abdulrahman Abdou (Qatar)

14 January 2011
19:15
Bahrain  5 – 2  India
Aaish Goal 8' (pen.)
Abdullatif Goal 16'20'35'77'
Report G. Singh Goal 10'
Chhetri Goal 53'

18 January 2011
16:15
South Korea  4 – 1  India
Ji Dong-Won Goal 6'23'
Koo Ja-Cheol Goal 9'
Son Heung-Min Goal 81'
Report Chhetri Goal 12' (pen.)
Al Gharafa Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 11,366
Referee: Khalil Al Ghamdi (Saudi Arabia)

18 January 2011
16:15
Australia  1 – 0  Bahrain
Jedinak Goal 37' Report
Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 3,919
Referee: Yuichi Nishimura (Japan)

Group D

Powerhouses Iran and defending champions Iraq both went through as expected, but the surprise of the group was the performance of the United Arab Emirates who scored no goals and had a player score an own goal in two consecutive matches.

Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
 Iran 3 3 0 0 6 1 +5 9
 Iraq 3 2 0 1 3 2 +1 6
 North Korea 3 0 1 2 0 2 −2 1
 United Arab Emirates 3 0 1 2 0 4 −4 1
11 January 2011
16:15
North Korea  0 – 0  United Arab Emirates
Report
Qatar SC Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 3,639
Referee: Subkhiddin Mohd Salleh (Malaysia)

11 January 2011
19:15
Iraq  1 – 2  Iran
Mahmoud Goal 13' Report Rezaei Goal 42'
Mobali Goal 84'

15 January 2011
16:15
Iran  1 – 0  North Korea
Ansarifard Goal 62' Report
Qatar SC Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 6,488
Referee: Nawaf Shukralla (Bahrain)

15 January 2011
19:15
United Arab Emirates  0 – 1  Iraq
Report W. Abbas Goal 90+3' (o.g.)
Ahmed bin Ali Stadium, Al Rayyan
Attendance: 7,233
Referee: Yuichi Nishimura (Japan)

19 January 2011
19:15
Iraq  1 – 0  North Korea
Jassim Goal 22' Report

19 January 2011
19:15
United Arab Emirates  0 – 3  Iran
Report Afshin Goal 70'
M. Nouri Goal 83'
W. Abbas Goal 90+2' (o.g.)
Qatar SC Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 5,012
Referee: Kim Dong-Jin (South Korea)

Knockout stage

Quarter-finals Semi-finals Final
                   
21 January - Doha        
  Uzbekistan  2
25 January - Doha
  Jordan  1  
  Uzbekistan  0
22 January - Doha
    Australia  6  
  Australia (a.e.t.)  1
29 January - Doha
  Iraq  0  
  Australia  0
21 January - Doha
    Japan (a.e.t.)  1
  Japan  3
25 January - Doha
  Qatar  2  
  Japan (pen.)  2 (3) Third place
22 January - Doha
    South Korea  2 (0)  
  Iran  0   Uzbekistan  2
  South Korea (a.e.t.)  1     South Korea  3
28 January - Doha

All times are Arabian Standard Time (AST) – UTC+3

Quarter-finals

21 January 2011
16:25
Japan  3 – 2  Qatar
Kagawa Goal 29'71'
Inoha Goal 89'
Report Soria Goal 13'
Fábio César Goal 63'
Al-Gharafa Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 19,479
Referee: Subkhiddin Mohd Salleh (Malaysia)

21 January 2011
19:25
Uzbekistan  2 – 1  Jordan
Bakayev Goal 47'49' Report B. Bani Yaseen Goal 58'

22 January 2011
16:25
Australia  1 – 0 (a.e.t.)  Iraq
Kewell Goal 118' Report
Jassim Bin Hamad Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 7,889
Referee: Abdulrahman Abdou (Qatar)

22 January 2011
19:25
Iran  0 – 1 (a.e.t.)  South Korea
Report Yoon Bit-Garam Goal 105'
Qatar SC Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 7,111
Referee: Ravshan Irmatov (Uzbekistan)

Semi-finals

25 January 2011
16:25
Japan  2 – 2 (a.e.t.)  South Korea
Maeda Goal 36'
Hosogai Goal 97'
Report Ki Sung-Yueng Goal 23' (pen.)
Hwang Jae-Won Goal 120'
  Penalties  
K. Honda Penalty scored
Okazaki Penalty scored
Nagatomo Penalty missed
Konno Penalty scored
3 – 0 Penalty missed Koo Ja-Cheol
Penalty missed Lee Yong-Rae
Penalty missed Hong Jeong-Ho
Al-Gharafa Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 16,171
Referee: Khalil Al Ghamdi (Saudi Arabia)

25 January 2011
19:25
Uzbekistan  0 – 6  Australia
Report Kewell Goal 5'
Ognenovski Goal 35'
Carney Goal 65'
Emerton Goal 73'
Valeri Goal 82'
Kruse Goal 83'
Khalifa International Stadium, Doha
Attendance: 24,826
Referee: Ali Al Badwawi (UAE)

Third place playoff

28 January 2011
18:00
Uzbekistan  2 – 3  South Korea
Geynrikh Goal 45' (pen.)53' Report Koo Ja-Cheol Goal 18'
Ji Dong-Won Goal 28'39'

Final

29 January 2011
18:00
Australia  0 – 1 (a.e.t.)  Japan
Report Lee Goal 109'

Awards

Winners

 AFC Asian Cup 2011 Winners 

Japan
Fourth title

Individual Awards

Top Goalscorers Most Valuable Player Fair Play Award
Koo Ja-Cheol Keisuke Honda  South Korea

Scorers

With five goals, Koo Ja-Cheol is the top scorer in the tournament. In total, 90 goals were scored by 60 different players, with three of them credited as own goals.

5 goals:

4 goals: 3 goals: 2 goals: 1 goal: 1 own goal: 2 own goals:

Team of the tournament

Final positions

As per statistical convention in football, matches decided in extra time are counted as wins and losses, while matches decided by penalty shoot-outs are counted as draws.
Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Eff
1  Japan 6 4 2 0 14 6 +8 14 77.8%
2  Australia 6 4 1 1 13 2 +11 13 72.2%
3  South Korea 6 4 2 0 13 7 +6 14 77.8%
4  Uzbekistan 6 3 1 2 10 13 −3 10 55.6%
Eliminated in the Quarterfinals
5  Iran 4 3 0 1 6 2 +4 9 75.0%
6  Jordan 4 2 1 1 5 4 +1 7 58.3%
7  Qatar 4 2 0 2 7 5 +2 6 50.0%
8  Iraq 4 2 0 2 3 3 0 6 50.0%
Eliminated in the First Stage
9  China PR 3 1 1 1 4 4 0 4 44.4%
10  Bahrain 3 1 0 2 6 5 +1 3 33.3%
11  Syria 3 1 0 2 4 5 −1 3 33.3%
12  North Korea 3 0 1 2 0 2 −2 1 11.1%
13  United Arab Emirates 3 0 1 2 0 4 −4 1 11.1%
14  Kuwait 3 0 0 3 1 7 −6 0 0.0%
15  Saudi Arabia 3 0 0 3 1 8 −7 0 0.0%
16  India 3 0 0 3 3 13 −10 0 0.0%

Theme song

For marketing of the event, the organisers opted for the slogan "Yalla Asia" with a song sung by international artists Jay Sean and Karl Wolf, featuring Radhika Vekaria. Yalla Asia was composed and written by Radhika Vekaria, Max Herman and Zoulikha El Fassi. The record was produced by Max Herman for Zoul Projects 2011.The children choir from the 'Sylvia Young Theater School, London'. Choir conducted by Katherine Sayles.

Concerns and controversies

The AFC Asian Cup 2011 was not without controversy as concerns were risen about the extremely low crowds at most Asian Cup games not featuring the host nation Qatar. The average attendance was just 12,006, much lower than the previous AFC Asian Cup tournaments. North Korea and the United Arab Emirates both had the lowest attendance numbers with approximately 3,000 and 6,000 attendances respectively.[17] The

  • AFC Asian Cup 2011 Official Site (Archived)
  • Qatar 2011
  • Match Schedule Asian Football Confederation
  • 2011 AFC Asian Cup ESPN Soccernet

External links

  1. ^ a b "Qatar confirmed as cup host".  
  2. ^ a b "Qatar to host AFC Asian Cup in 2011". Asian Football Confederation. 29 July 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2007. 
  3. ^ "Japan down Aussies to make history". FIFA.com. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  4. ^ "Australia 0 - 1 Japan". ESPN Soccernet. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  5. ^ "Asian Cup final 'rematch' kick-off time set".  
  6. ^ "Nations make Asian Cup bid".  
  7. ^ "Chances to host 2011 Asian Cup fading". Sydney Morning Herald. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2007. 
  8. ^ Qatar formally submits Asian Cup 2011 bid AFC Asian Cup
  9. ^ India withdraw 2011 AFC Asian Cup interest AFC Asian Cup
  10. ^ "Unity the theme at AFC Executive Committee meeting". AFC. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009. 
  11. ^ "AFC Asian Cup 2011 Finals draw on April 23". AFC. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  12. ^ "AFC Asian Cup 2011 final draw mechanics". The-AFC.com. Asian Football Confederation. 22 April 2010. 
  13. ^ "AFC Organising Committee for AFC Asian Cup 2011". AFC. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009. 
  14. ^ "The Tracer's excitement for AC 2011". The-AFC.com (Asian Football Confederation). 13 December 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  15. ^ "2011 AFC Asian Cup referees". publisher=Asian Football Confederation. 
  16. ^ a b "AFC Asian Cup Qatar 2011 Competition Regulations". AFC. 
  17. ^ http://soccernet.espn.go.com/stats/attendance/_/league/afc.cup/afc-asian-cup?cc=3888
  18. ^ Asian Cup blames royals' attendance
  19. ^ "Five things we've learned from Qatar's Asian Cup". CNN. 3 February 2011. 
  20. ^ http://www.the-afc.com/en/afc-asian-cup-news/33102-afc-statement-afc-asian-cup-qatar-2011-final-match-tickets-and-refund
  21. ^ AFP: Qatar puts Middle East football on map
  22. ^ James Montague for CNN: Qatar: From obscure desert kingdom to World Cup host

References

After staging the 2006 Asian Games,[21] the 2011 Asian Cup was being closely watched as an indicator to see how Qatar copes with hosting a major international football tournament[22] in preparation for the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar.

[20]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.