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6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles

 

6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles

6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles
Active 1817–1994
Country  India
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Branch British Army
Type Rifles
Role Light Infantry
Size 1–4 battalions (One: 1817–1903, two: 1903–68, three: 1940–47, four: 1941–46)
Garrison/HQ British Hong Kong
Colors Green; faced black
March Young May Moon (Quick March)
Engagements

Third Anglo-Burmese War
Great War

Second World War

Malayan Emergency

Confrontation
Decorations 2 VCs
Insignia
Shoulder Flash
Abbreviation 6 GR

The 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles was a rifle regiment of the British Indian Army comprising Gurkha soldiers of Nepalese origin, before being transferred to the British Army following India's independence. Originally raised in 1817 as part of the army of the British East India Company, the regiment has been known by a number of names throughout its history. Initially the unit did not recruit from the Gurkhas, although after being transferred to the British Indian Army following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, it became a purely Gurkha regiment, in due course with its regimental headquarters at Abbottabad in the North West Frontier Province of British India. After 1947 the regiment was one of only four Gurkha regiments to be transferred to the British Army and this continued up until 1994, when it was amalgamated with other Gurkha regiments to form the Royal Gurkha Rifles. Over the course of its 177-year history, the regiment was awarded 25 battle honours, although prior to World War I it had only been awarded one and no battle honours were awarded to it after World War II.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Beginnings 1.1
    • Lineage 1.2
    • First World War 1.3
    • Inter-war years 1.4
    • Second World War 1.5
    • Post 1947 1.6
  • Victoria Cross recipients 2
  • Battle honours 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

History

Beginnings

42nd Gurkha Light Infantry, c. 1890

The regiment was initially raised in 1817 as the Cuttack Legion as part of the army of the East India Company.[1] This was a unit of Indian natives from the Cuttack City of Odisha area and initially it was used to maintain order in the region, before moving to Northern Bengal in 1823 when it became known as the Rungpoor Light Infantry.

During the [1] which was the highest award that a Gurkha could receive until 1911 when Gurkhas became eligible for the Victoria Cross.[2]

Following this, the regiment was transferred to the newly formed [1]

In 1899 the regiment moved from Assam to [1]

Lineage

1817–1823 – The Cuttack Legion
1823–1823 – Rungpore Local Battalion (January–March)
1823–1823 – Rungpore Light Infantry (March–May)
1823–1826 – 10th Rungpore Light Infantry
1826–1827 – 8th Rungapore Light Infantry
1827–1844 – 8th Assam Light Infantry
1844–1850 – 8th/1st Light Infantry Battalion
1850–1861 – 1st Assam Light Infantry Battalion
1861–1865 – Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry (Light Infantry)
1865–1885 – (Assam) Regiment of Bengal (Light) Infantry
1885–1886 – 42nd (Assam) Regiment of Bengal (Light) Infantry
1886–1889 – 42nd Regiment Gurkha Light Infantry
1889–1891 – 42nd (Gurkha) Regiment of Bengal Light Infantry
1891–1901 – 42nd Gurkha (Rifle) Regiment of Bengal Light Infantry
1901–1903 – 42nd Gurkha Rifles
1903–1959 – 6th Gurkha Rifles
1959–1994 – 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles.[3]

First World War

The 2nd Battalion, 6th Gurkha Rifles of 42nd Indian Brigade march towards the Action of Khan Baghdadi

During the First World War the regiment was expanded further with the raising of a third battalion.[1] The regiment served in a number of theatres during the war, including Persia, the Middle East, Turkey and Greece.[1]

The 1st Battalion had the distinction of being the first Gurkha unit to arrive at Gallipoli landing at Cape Helles on 25 April 1915.[5] Their first major operation saw them attack an Ottoman position that was doing significant damage to Allied forces with machine guns—this involved them going up a 300-foot (91 metre) vertical slope which had defeated both the Royal Marine Light Infantry and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers—however, the Gurkhas gained the position with ease.[6] Eighteen Gurkhas were killed in this action and another forty-two were wounded. For their sacrifice, this area is now known as Gurkha Bluff.[7]

The 2nd Battalion meanwhile began service with the 2nd (Rawalpindi) Division[8] and in April 1916 transferred to the new 15th Indian Division where it served the remainder of the war in Mesopotamia.[9]

The 3rd Battalion was formed as the 3rd Gurkha Reserve Battalion on 5 February 1917[10] at Rawalpindi.[11] In February 1918, it was transferred to the Bannu Brigade on the North East Frontier.[12] With the brigade, it served in the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919.[13] It was disbanded on 1 February 1921.[14]

Inter-war years

Between the First and Second World Wars the regiment was reduced to two battalions once more and they returned to the North-West Frontier where they were employed on garrison duties.[1]

Second World War

The Second World War saw the expansion of all ten Gurkha regiments of the British Indian Army, and the 6th Gurkhas raised a further two battalions, numbered as the 3rd and 4th Battalions.[15] Over the course of the conflict, battalions of the Regiment fought in [1][16]

In January 1943 the 2nd Battalion was attached to the 3rd Indian Motor Brigade which had just returned from the Western Desert after having been almost destroyed at the Battle of Gazala.[17] At the end of the month the brigade was renamed as the 43rd Indian Infantry Brigade (Lorried). The brigade and its Gurkha battalions were sent to Italy in mid-1944 as an Independent brigade.[18]

It was during the Burma campaign, that the Regiment received its first Victoria Cross, in fact two awards were made to members of the Regiment for actions on the same day. Captain Michael Allmand and Rifleman Tulbahadur Pun[19] were awarded the VC for their actions during the fighting around the Pin Hmi Road Bridge at Mogaung in Burma on 23 June 1944 while serving with the 3rd Battalion[20] who were taking part Operation Thursday, which was the second Chindit expedition.[21] The 3rd Battalion's involvement in this operation proved very costly and they suffered 126 killed, 352 wounded and 7 missing.[22] As well as the two previously mentioned VCs, members of the battalion also received the following awards: 2 DSOs, 3 IOMs, 6 MCs, 4 IDSMs, 12 MMs, 3 US Silver Stars.[23]

Post 1947

In 1946 the regiment was reduced to three battalions, following the disbandment of the 4th Battalion. A year later, India gained its independence and under the 1947 [1]

As with other Gurkha regiments, the 6th Gurkhas primarily saw service in the Far East until the British withdrawal from East of Suez. Both battalions participated in the [1]

On 16 June 1969, the 6th Gurkhas was reduced to a single [1] The single battalion continued to rotate with the other Gurkha regiments between Hong Kong, Brunei and Church Crookham until 1 July 1994. At that point, while in Hong Kong, the 1st Battalion was amalgamated with the 1st Battalion, 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) to form the 1st Battalion, Royal Gurkha Rifles.[25]

Victoria Cross recipients

There have been two Victoria Cross recipients from the 6th Gurkhas. These were:

Battle honours

The 6th Gurkhas received the following battle honours:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "History of the 6th Gurkhas". 6th Gurkhas.org. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  2. ^ Parker 2005, pp. 61–62.
  3. ^ a b "6th Gurkha's Regimental Titles". 6th Gurkhas.org. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  4. ^ Parker 2005, pp. 87–88.
  5. ^ Parker 2005, p. 116.
  6. ^ Parker 2005, pp. 118–119.
  7. ^ Parker 2005, pp. 117–118.
  8. ^ Perry 1993, p. 42
  9. ^ Perry 1993, p. 134
  10. ^ Perry 1993, p. 177
  11. ^ Perry 1993, p. 43
  12. ^ Perry 1993, p. 154
  13. ^ Perry 1993, p. 156
  14. ^ Gaylor 1996, p. 235
  15. ^ Cross & Gurung 2002, p. 31.
  16. ^ Cross & Gurung 2002, p. 114.
  17. ^ "rothwell". 
  18. ^ Chappell 1993, p. 58.
  19. ^ "6th Gurkha's Victoria Crosses". 6th Gurkhas.org. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  20. ^ Referred to as the 3/6th.
  21. ^ Parker 2005, pp. 193–198.
  22. ^ These casualties were broken down as follows: British officers—11 killed and 9 wounded; Gurkha officers—6 killed, 8 wounded and Gurkha other ranks—109 killed, 335 wounded and 7 missing.
  23. ^ "The Battle for Mogaung". 6th Gurkhas.org. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  24. ^ Parker 2005, p. 248.
  25. ^ a b Parker 2005, p. 387.
  26. ^ Parker 2005, p. 393.

References

  • Chappell, Mike. The Gurkhas. Elite series. London: Osprey Military Publishing.  
  • Cross, J.P; Buddhiman Gurung (2007). Gurkhas at War: Eyewitness Accounts from World War II to Iraq (2nd ed.). London: Greenhill Books.  
  • Gaylor, John (1996). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903–1991 (2nd ed.). Tunbridge Wells: Parapress.  
  • Parker, John (2005). The Gurkhas: The Inside Story of the World's Most Feared Soldiers. London: Headling Book Publishing.  
  • Perry, F.W. (1993). Order of Battle of Divisions Part 5B. Indian Army Divisions. Newport, Gwent: Ray Westlake Military Books.  

Further reading

  • Lunt, James (1994). Jai Sixth! The Story of the 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles 1817–1994. Leo Cooper.  
  • Ryan, Maj.Dennis GJ &; Strachan, Maj.GC (1925). Historical Records of the 6th Gurkha Rifles, Vol I, 1817-1919. Gale & Polden. 
  • Gibbs, Col.HKR (1955). Historical Records of the 6th Gurkha Rifles, Vol II, 1919-1948. Gale & Polden. 

External links

  • 6th Gurkhas Homepage
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