World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Abdullah II of Jordan

Article Id: WHEBN0000164053
Reproduction Date:

Title: Abdullah II of Jordan  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hussein of Jordan, Jordanian protests (2011–12), Prince Hassan bin Talal, Jordanian dinar, Queen Rania of Jordan
Collection: 13Th/18Th Royal Hussars Officers, 1962 Births, Alumni of Pembroke College, Oxford, Chevaliers of the Order of Merit (Ukraine), Collars of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, Collars of the Order of the Chrysanthemum, Crown Princes of Jordan, Deerfield Academy Alumni, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service Alumni, Field Marshals, Graduates of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Grand Collars of the Order of Prince Henry, Grand Masters of the Order of Al-Hussein Bin Ali, Grand Masters of the Order of Independence (Jordan), Grand Masters of the Order of the Star of Jordan, Grand Masters of the Supreme Order of the Renaissance, Honorary Knights Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George, Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, House of Hashim, Jordan, Jordanian People of English Descent, Jordanian Sunni Muslims, Kings of Jordan, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav, Knights Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, Living People, Marshals of the Air Force, Muslim Monarchs, News Articles by Person, People Educated at St Edmund's School, Hindhead, People from Amman, Recipients of the Grand Star of the Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria, Recipients of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, 1St Class, Royal Family Order of the Crown of Brunei, Royalty
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Abdullah II of Jordan

Abdullah II of Jordan
King of Jordan
King Abdullah of Jordan.
King of Jordan
Reign 7 February 1999 – present
Coronation 9 June 1999
Predecessor Hussein
Heir apparent Hussein II of Jordan
Prime Ministers
Born (1962-01-30) 30 January 1962 [1]
Amman, Jordan
Spouse Rania Al-Yassin
Issue
Detail
Crown Prince Hussein
Princess Iman
Princess Salma
Prince Hashem
Full name
Abdullah bin Hussein bin Talal bin Abdullah bin Hussein bin Ali
House House of Hashim
Father Hussein of Jordan
Mother Muna al-Hussein
Religion Sunni Islam

Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (Arabic: عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين‎, ʿAbdullāh aṯ-ṯānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn; born 30 January 1962) has been the King of Jordan since he ascended the throne on 7 February 1999 upon the death of his father King Hussein. He is a member of the Hashemite family, which has ruled Jordan since 1921 and claims to be descended from the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[2]

Abdullah was born to Hussein and his second wife, the British-born Princess Muna al-Hussein. He was named crown prince shortly after his birth. King Hussein transferred the title to his own brother, Hassan, in 1965, only to return it to Abdullah in 1999. He is married to Queen Rania, who is of Palestinian origin. In 1993, he assumed command of Jordan's special forces and became a Major General in May 1998.[1][3]

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • King of Jordan 2
    • Politics as king 2.1
    • Successor 2.2
    • Democracy in Jordan 2.3
    • Economic liberalization 2.4
    • Nuclear plans for Jordan 2.5
    • Interfaith work 2.6
    • Regional unrest 2.7
    • Increased powers 2.8
  • Family and personal life 3
  • Titles, honours and awards 4
    • Titles 4.1
    • Honours 4.2
      • Jordanian National Honours 4.2.1
      • Other Honours 4.2.2
  • Ancestry 5
  • Published works 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10

Early life

Abdullah was born in Amman, to King Hussein, during his marriage to British-born Princess Muna al-Hussein (born Antoinette Avril Gardiner). He was the king's eldest son[1] and as such he was heir apparent to the throne of Jordan under the 1952 constitution. However, due to unstable times in the 1960s, King Hussein decided to appoint his brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal, as his heir.[1][4]

Abdullah began his schooling at the Islamic Educational College in Amman. He then attended St Edmund's School, Hindhead, in England, before continuing his education in the United States at Eaglebrook School and Deerfield Academy in Deerfield, Massachusetts. In 1980 he attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, was commissioned into the British Army as a Second Lieutenant, and served for a year as a troop commander in the 13th/18th Royal Hussars.[1][5] In 1982, Abdullah was admitted to Pembroke College, Oxford, where he completed a one-year Special Studies course in Middle Eastern Affairs. Upon returning home, he joined the Royal Jordanian Army, serving as an officer in the 40th Armored Brigade, and undergoing a parachuting and freefall course. In 1985, he attended the Armored Officer's Advanced Course at Fort Knox, and in 1986, he became commander of a tank company in the 91st Armored Brigade, holding the rank of Captain.[6] He also served with the Royal Jordanian Air Force in its Anti-Tank Wing, where he was trained to fly Cobra attack helicopters.[7]

In 1987, he attended the

Abdullah II of Jordan
Born: 30 January 1962
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hussein
King of Jordan
1999–present
Incumbent
Heir apparent:
Hussein bin Abdullah
  • King of Jordan meets troops in UK
  • interview with King Abdullah II: "Iraq is the Battleground – the West against Iran"Middle East Quarterly
  • A letter from the Committee to Protect Journalists directed to King Abdullah
  • Amnesty International report on alleged violations of human rights in Jordan under King Abdullah
  • King sees shared Jerusalem
  • Jordan's King Abdullah Pushes for Moderation
  • Pedigree back to Mohammed, Abraham, Adam
Articles
  • Official website of his majesty King Abdullah II
  • The Family Line of HM King Abdullah
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • King Abdullah of Jordan in 60 seconds
  • His appearance as extra in Star Trek scene
  • Russell Peters Punked by the King
  • King's speech at the European Parliament
  • Abdullah II of Jordan at the Internet Movie Database
  • Abdullah II of Jordan collected news and commentary at The Guardian
  • Abdullah II of Jordan collected news and commentary at The New York Times
  • Works by or about Abdullah II of Jordan in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • King's Academy
  • Ancestry of Antoinette Avril Gardiner (born 1941)
  • His Majesty's official channel
  • King Abdullah II of Jordan coins

External links

  • Robins, Philip. A History of Jordan, Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-59895-8

Further reading

  1. ^ a b c d e f g
  2. ^ Jordan profile
  3. ^ Kingabdullah.jo (2006), His Majesty King Abdullah II: King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Royal Hashemite Court. Retrieved on 14 December 2007
  4. ^ Robins, 193.
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Jordan Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments, p. 116
  8. ^
  9. ^ Robins, 196.
  10. ^ http://www.kingabdullah.jo/en_US/pages/view/id/148.html
  11. ^ Los Angeles Times 8 February 1999 (Jordan Mourns King as Leaders Gather at Funeral)
  12. ^
  13. ^ Jordan—Concluding Statement for the 2006 Article IV Consultation and Fourth Post-Program Monitoring Discussions, International Monetary Fund, 28 November 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  14. ^ Trade and Investment, Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
  15. ^ White House Office of the Press Secretary (28 September 2001), Overview: U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
  16. ^ Hussein, Mohammad Ben. King opens Parliament today, Jordan Times, 28 November 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  17. ^
  18. ^ "Jordan jails outspoken dissident", BBC News, 16 May 2002. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  19. ^ Israeli general in Jordan apology, BBC News, 23 February 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ Jordan irked by Olmert remarks on Iraq pullout, Khaleej Times, 19 March 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^ Jordan crown prince loses title, BBC News, 29 November 2004. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  26. ^ Prince Hussein named Crown Prince, Jordan Times, 3 July 2009. Retrieved 3 July 2009
  27. ^ "Jordan edging towards democracy", BBC News, 27 January 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  28. ^ http://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/new-elections-bill-sheds-one-vote-system
  29. ^ http://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/jordan-uae-share-top-place-among-arab-countries-economic-freedom-index
  30. ^ Eldar, Akiva. King Abdullah to Haaretz: Jordan aims to develop nuclear power, Haaretz, 20 January 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ https://ca.news.yahoo.com/islamic-state-supporters-post-photos-purportedly-showing-jordanian-170209043.html
  35. ^ http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/muath-al-kaseasbeh-recap-updates-after-5099452
  36. ^
  37. ^ "Jordan: The Royal Tour" at imdb
  38. ^ Paradise Post newspaper article published 15 July 2010
  39. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 57032. p. 10318. 19 August 2003. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^ Jordan Signs Agreement With USC To Create Middle East Cinema Institute.
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Royal Ark, Jordanian genealogy details
  48. ^ Italian Presidency Website, S.A.R. Abdullah Bin Al Hussein Principe di Giordania : Cavaliere di Gran Croce ; S.M. Abdullah II Bin Al Hussein Re di Giordania Decorato di Gran Cordone
  49. ^ PPE Agency, State visit of Jordan in Netherlands 2006, Photo
  50. ^ a b
  51. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
  52. ^ (Ukrainian) Order of President of Ukraine № 698/2011 "About awarding Abdullah II Order of Merit"
  53. ^ (Ukrainian) Order of President of Ukraine № 366/2002 "About awarding Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise"

References

See also

Published works

Ancestry

Other Honours

Jordanian National Honours

Honours

  • 30 January 1962 – 1 March 1965: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Jordan
  • 1 March 1965 – 24 January 1999: His Royal Highness The Prince Abdullah of Jordan
  • 24 January 1999 – 7 February 1999: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Jordan
  • 7 February 1999 – present: His Majesty the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Styles of
King Abdullah II of Jordan
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir

Titles

Titles, honours and awards

On 13 December 2013 in the 2013 Middle East cold snap in Amman he helped to push a car which was stuck in deep snow in a street.[46]

He is also a fan of stand-up comedian Russell Peters, granting him an audience in 2009 and inviting him for dinner.[45]

King Abdullah II has an interest in the internet and information technology, and commented on two Jordanian blogs that discussed his interview with the Petra News Agency: the Black Iris and the newspaper daily Ad-Dustor.[44]

His interest in the film industry has also influenced his decision to create the Red Sea Institute of Cinematic Arts in the Red Sea coastal town of Aqaba, in partnership with the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts on 20 September 2006.[43] When the producers of Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen chose to film in Jordan, he called on 38 military helicopters to help transport equipment into Petra.

He is a fan of the science fiction series Star Trek. In 1996, while still a prince, he appeared briefly in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Investigations" in a non-speaking role, as he is not a member of the Screen Actors Guild.[40] A Star Trek theme park is planned to open in 2020[41] as part of the $1.5-billion The Red Sea Astrarium (TRSA) project in Aqaba, with the King being the majority local investor.[42]

King Abdullah attended Deerfield Academy in his youth, and in appreciation of the schooling he received, he has created King's Academy, a sister institution, in Jordan. He hired Deerfield Headmaster Eric Widmer to lead it, along with many other Deerfield staff. Prior to Deerfield, King Abdullah attended Eaglebrook School. He is the Colonel-in-Chief of the UK Light Dragoons regiment;[39] his previous connection to the unit includes his service as a Troop Leader in the 13th/18th Royal Hussars.

Prince Ali bin Al Hussein, one of his brothers and president of the Jordan Football Association, has claimed that King Abdullah is the biggest fan of the Jordan national football team. King Abdullah himself was a former president of the football association until he assumed his father's throne and became King of Jordan and was succeeded by Prince Ali.

King Abdullah has listed sky diving, rally racing, scuba diving, football, and science fiction among his interests and hobbies. He promotes tourism in Jordan, having served as a tour guide for Discovery Channel travel host Peter Greenberg in the "Jordan: The Royal Tour".[37] In the program the king notes that since assuming the throne, he is no longer permitted to sky dive. King Abdullah also likes motorcycles, and toured Northern California on a Harley-Davidson in July 2010.[38]

King Abdullah is married to Rania al-Abdullah of Palestinian origin.[1] He is the first king of Jordan who has never had more than one wife. They have four children:

Family and personal life

In August 2014 the Jordanian government announced that it would ask parliament to approve two constitutional amendments giving King Abdullah sole authority to appoint the head of the armed forces and director of the kingdom’s General Intelligence Department (GID). Almost three years earlier, in October 2011, in response to public protests calling for political reforms, King Abdullah II had approved a number of constitutional amendments that curtailed some of his powers and allowed for the creation of a Constitutional Court and an Independent Elections Commission.[36]

Increased powers

This followed reports of ISIS activity inside Jordan itself, at two rallies in Ma'an tens of protesters took it to the street raising their fists while waving home-made banners bearing the logo and inscriptions of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and shouted, "Down, down with Abdullah," the king of Jordan.[33] Supporters of Islamic State in Jordan is extremely low and even might have become non-existent after the murder of the Jordanian pilot Muath Al-Kasasbeh by the Islamic State in February 2015.[34][35]

Speaking about the unrest in Syria and Iraq, Abdullah II told a delegation of US congressmen on 29 June 2014 that he fears the turmoil in Iraq could spill over into the entire region. He added that any solution to the problems in the war-torn country must involve all of the people of Iraq. Abdullah’s comments put him at odds with Israel on Iraq’s future. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu had called for full independence for Iraq’s northern Kurdish region, echoing earlier statements by President Shimon Peres. Abdullah’s comments came as the Iraqi army continued to attack jihadist forces that had recently seized large areas of the country north of Baghdad. In the biggest operation at the time against the Islamic State, troops backed by tanks and helicopter gunships battled to retake the city of Tikrit.[32]

Regional unrest

In 2010, King Abdullah proposed a World Interfaith Harmony Week at the UN, to promote a culture of peace; the elimination of all forms of intolerance and discrimination based on religion or belief; and the promotion of interreligious dialogue.[1]

Interfaith work

On 20 January 2007, King Abdullah revealed to Haaretz that Jordan has plans to develop nuclear power for internal energy purposes because unlike other countries in the region Jordan has almost no oil.[30] Jordan is one of the few non-petroleum producing nations in the region and is strategically dependent on oil from its neighbor, Iraq. Continuing civil unrest in Iraq puts Jordanian national and energy security at risk. Jordan's first nuclear power plant will be ready by 2016 called Jordan Research and Training Reactor located in Jordan University of Science and Technology in Irbid which aims to train Jordanian students in the already existing Nuclear engineering program. There will be two other nuclear reactors to be completed by 2022 which will be located near Qasr Amra. In turn, the nuclear power plants will desalinate the water and pump it to northern Jordan. (According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Jordan is one of the poorest countries in terms of water resources.[31])

Nuclear plans for Jordan

His efforts has turned Jordan into the freest Arab economy and the 9th freest economy in the world according to an 2015 study issued by the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Liberty.[29]

Under King Abdullah II, the air transport sector was liberalized. Also, King Abdullah II established six special economic zones: Aqaba, Ma'an, Mafraq, Irbid, the Dead Sea, and Ajloun. Each SEZ has its own niche which will carve a unique identity for that region of Jordan. The Aqaba SEZ is primarily devoted to tourism and industry. The Ma'an SEZ is industrial primarily with a focus on renewable energy resources especially solar energy. The world's largest solar power plant will be constructed in Ma'an. The Mafraq SEZ will become a regional hub in transport and logistics with planned air, road, and rail connections to neighboring countries. The Irbid SEZ is adjacent to the Jordan University of Science and Technology and it will focus on scientific and medical facilities. The recently launched Dead Sea zone will focus on tourism and entertainment. The Ajloun SEZ consists of 24 proposed tourism projects, including a 2,000 dunum tourism city that will comprise 900 hotel rooms, restaurants, and other entertainment facilities with environmental considerations.

Jordan has embarked on an aggressive economic liberalization program under King Abdullah II in an effort to stimulate the economy and raise the standard of living. Jordan's economic growth peaked at 8 percent in 2004 and has been averaging at 7 percent. King Abdullah II has liberalized the telecommunications sector and has implemented an ICT curriculum into Jordan's education system. This has made Jordan's telecommunications sector the most competitive in the region. King Abdullah called on the government to lower internet prices in an effort to increase internet penetration to 50% by 2010. He is also very involved in promoting Jordan's tourism sector, especially with the establishment of the Aqaba Special Economic Zone.

Jordanian Royal Family

HM The King
HM The Queen


HM Queen Noor
HRH The Princess Mother

Economic liberalization

Elections were held in November 2010, and following the Arab Spring in 2011, a new prime minister was appointed. In June 2011 the King announced a move to a British style of Cabinet Government but it is still under debate. In 2015, the one vote system was introduced which aims according to the Jordanian government to revive the political, democratic and parliamentary life in Jordan.[28]

In 2005 [27] Thus far, however, democratic development has been limited, with the monarchy maintaining most power and its allies dominating parliament.

Democracy in Jordan

On 28 November 2004, Abdullah removed the title of crown prince from his half-brother, Hamzah, whom he had appointed on 7 February 1999, in accordance with their father's wishes. In a letter from Abdullah to Hamzah, read on Jordanian state television, he said, "Your holding this symbolic position has restrained your freedom and hindered our entrusting you with certain responsibilities that you are fully qualified to undertake." No successor to the title was named at that time, but it was anticipated that Abdullah intended to appoint formally his own son and new heir apparent, Prince Hussein, as crown prince.[25] Hussein was granted the title on 2 July 2009.[26]

See Line of succession to the Jordanian throne.

Successor

Abdullah has made women's rights an important part of his dynasty.[1]

King Abdullah has a strong belief in a powerful military and has led Jordan into adopting a "quality over quantity" policy. This policy has led Jordan to acquire advanced weaponry and greatly increase and enhance its F-16 fighter jet fleet.[23] The ground forces have acquired the Challenger 1 main battle tank,[24] a vehicle far superior to the T-72/55 tanks that have traditionally dominated Arab armies.

In March 2007, Ehud Olmert commented on any American withdrawal from Iraq by saying that: "Israel is worried a hasty American withdrawal from Iraq could have negative impact on the Hashemite regime in Jordan..." Jordan's spokesman Nasser Jawdeh replied by saying: "The Israeli prime minister should worry about his political future before worrying about us."[22]

Major General Yair Naveh, GOC of the Israel Defense Forces Homefront Command and former GOC of Israeli Central Command, said in a gathering with reporters that King Abdullah might fall and that he could be Jordan's last king. The statement created tension between the two countries, and afterwards Naveh retracted his statement and apologized.[19] Later, the Israeli prime minister Olmert expressed the disagreement of Israel with Naveh's statement, and referred to it as a personal and irrelevant view.[20][21]

Abdullah II in a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, 21 April 2009, in Washington, D.C.

Jordan received criticism when Toujan al-Faisal, Jordan's first female member of Parliament and an outspoken advocate for freedom of expression and human rights, was jailed for slandering the government after she charged it with corruption in a letter to Abdullah.[18] She was pardoned and released by King Abdullah. Despite these events, King Abdullah has continued his aggressive liberalization of Jordan's media. He recently issued a declaration forbidding detention of journalists in Jordan.

King Abdullah II has worked for the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, attending the Arab Summit in 2002, OIC conferences and having several summits with US, Israeli and Palestinian delegations to find a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. On 6 December 2012, King Abdullah traveled to the West Bank to visit the Palestinian Authority, becoming the first head of state to visit the territory after it was accepted as a non-member observer state to the United Nations.[17]

The King announced on 2 March 2007 municipal elections in Jordan and in 25 November 2006 in his parliament address, told the parliament to work on reforms of the press and publication law.[16]

Abdullah's speech at The Catholic University of America's Columbus School of Law in September 2005 was entitled "Traditional Islam: The Path to Peace." While en route to the United States, King Abdullah met with Pope Benedict XVI to build on the relations that Jordan had established with Pope John Paul II to discuss ways in which Muslims and Christians can continue to work together for peace, tolerance, and coexistence.

In 2008, King Abdullah began his Decent Housing for Decent Living campaign in which all Jordanian citizens, and Palestinian refugees, will be guaranteed residential housing with access to community needs such as health, education, and community activities.

Jordan's economy has improved since Abdullah ascended to the throne in 1999, and he has been credited with increasing foreign investment, improving public-private partnerships, and providing the foundation for Aqaba's free trade zone and Jordan's flourishing ICT sector. He also set up five other special economic zones: Irbid, Ajloun, Mafraq, Ma'an and the Dead Sea. As a result of these reforms, Jordan's economic growth has doubled to 6% annually under King Abdullah's rule compared to the latter half of the 1990s.[13] Foreign direct investment from the West as well as the countries of the Persian Gulf has continued to increase.[14] He also negotiated a free trade agreement with the United States, which was the third free trade agreement for the U.S. and the first with an Arab country.[15]

King Abdullah II is the head of a constitutional monarchy in which the king retains substantial power. In 2010, he was chosen as the fourth most influential Muslim in the world.[12]

King Abdullah II shows his son, Crown Prince Hussein, a photo given to them by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry

Politics as king

A few hours after the announcement of his father's death, Abdullah went before an emergency session of the Jordanian National Assembly. Wearing a red-and-white Keffiyeh, Abdullah entered the parliament to quiet applause from senators and assemblymen, some weeping. Hussein's two brothers, Hassan and Mohammed, walked ahead of him. Abdullah stood in front of a portrait of Hussein at-attention, drawing more applause. He then spoke in Arabic the oath taken by Hussein almost fifty years before; "I swear by Almighty Allah to uphold the constitution and to be faithful to the nation". Zaid al-Rifai, speaker of the House of Notables (Senate), opened the session with Al-Fatiha, the opening Sura (chapter) of the Quran. His voice cracked with emotion as he led the recitation. "Allah, save his majesty," "Allah, give him advice and take care of him."[11]

Abdullah became king on 7 February 1999, upon the death of his father King Hussein. Hussein had recently named him crown prince on 24 January, changing the constitution and replacing Hussein's brother Hassan, who had served many years in the position (nearly 34 years, from 1965 to 1999). His namesake is King Abdullah I, his great grandfather who founded modern Jordan.[10]

King of Jordan

In the 1960s, King Hussein had arranged for the throne to pass to his brother and then to his son Prince Ali bin Al Hussein, but he later decided to change his mind. He seriously considered appointing one of his nephews as heir, but on his deathbed, on 25 January 1999, he named Abdullah as his heir.[9]

In 1993, he assumed command of Jordan's special forces and became a Major General in May 1998.

[8]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.