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Adult stem cell

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Adult stem cell

Adult stem cell
Transmission electron micrograph of an adult stem cell displaying typical ultrastructural characteristics.
Details
Latin Cellula praecursoria
Identifiers
Code TH H1.00.01.0.00035
Anatomical terminology

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic stem cells (from Greek Σωματικóς, meaning of the body), they can be found in juvenile as well as adult animals and human bodies.

Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the mice and rats.

Stem cell division and differentiation. A – stem cells; B – progenitor cell; C – differentiated cell; 1 – symmetric stem cell division; 2 – asymmetric stem cell division; 3 – progenitor division; 4 – terminal differentiation

Contents

  • Defining properties 1
  • Lineage 2
  • Multidrug resistance 3
  • Signaling pathways 4
  • Plasticity/Adult stem cell pluripotency 5
  • Aging 6
  • Types 7
    • Hematopoietic stem cells 7.1
    • Mammary stem cells 7.2
    • Intestinal stem cells 7.3
    • Mesenchymal stem cells 7.4
    • Endothelial stem cells 7.5
    • Neural stem cells 7.6
    • Olfactory adult stem cells 7.7
    • Neural crest stem cells 7.8
    • Testicular cells 7.9
  • Adult stem cell therapies 8
    • Sources 8.1
    • Clinical applications 8.2
    • First transplanted human organ grown from adult stem cells 8.3
  • Adult stem cells and cancer 9
  • See also 10
  • News and external links 11
  • References 12

Defining properties

A stem cell possesses two properties:

  • Self-renewal, which is the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while still maintaining its undifferentiated state.
  • multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. However, some researchers do not consider multipotency to be essential, and believe that unipotent self-renewing stem cells can exist.[1] These properties can be illustrated with relative ease in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of a single cell is characterized. However, it is known that in vitro cell culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, proving that a particular subpopulation of cells possesses stem cell properties in vivo is challenging, and so considerable debate exists as to whether some proposed stem cell populations in the adult are indeed stem cells.

Lineage

To ensure the safety of others, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells, both endowed with stem cell properties, whereas asymmetric division produces only one of those stem cells and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before finally differentiating into a mature cell. It is believed that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells.

Multidrug resistance

Adult stem cells express

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References

  • NIH Stem Cell Information Resource, resource for stem cell research
  • Nature Reports Stem Cells Background information, research advances and debates about stem cell science
  • UMDNJ Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, provides educational materials and research resources
  • Stem Cell Research at Johns Hopkins University

News and external links

See also

In recent years, acceptance of the concept of adult stem cells has increased. There is now a hypothesis that stem cells reside in many adult tissues and that these unique reservoirs of cells not only are responsible for the normal reparative and regenerative processes but are also considered to be a prime target for genetic and epigenetic changes, culminating in many abnormal conditions including cancer.[75][76]

Adult stem cells and cancer

In 2008 the first full transplant of a human organ grown from adult stem cells was carried out by Paolo Macchiarini, at the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona on Claudia Castillo, a Colombian female adult whose trachea had collapsed due to tuberculosis. Researchers from the University of Padua, the University of Bristol, and Politecnico di Milano harvested a section of trachea from a donor and stripped off the cells that could cause an immune reaction, leaving a grey trunk of cartilage. This section of trachea was then "seeded" with stem cells taken from Ms. Castillo's bone marrow and a new section of trachea was grown in the laboratory over four days. The new section of trachea was then transplanted into the left main bronchus of the patient.[69][70][71][72][73] Because the stem cells were harvested from the patient's own bone marrow Professor Macchiarini did not think it was necessary for her to be given anti-rejection (immunosuppressive) medication and when the procedure was reported four months later in The Lancet, the patient's immune system was showing no signs of rejecting the transplant.[74]

First transplanted human organ grown from adult stem cells

Early regenerative applications of adult stem cells has focused on intravenous delivery of blood progenitors known as Hematopetic Stem Cells (HSC's). CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells have been clinically applied to treat various diseases including spinal cord injury,[58] liver cirrhosis [59] and Peripheral Vascular disease.[60] Research has shown that CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells are relatively more numerous in men than in women of reproductive age group among spinal cord Injury victims.[61] Other early commercial applications have focused on Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). For both cell lines, direct injection or placement of cells into a site in need of repair may be the preferred method of treatment, as vascular delivery suffers from a "pulmonary first pass effect" where intravenous injected cells are sequestered in the lungs.[62] Clinical case reports in orthopedic applications have been published. Wakitani has published a small case series of nine defects in five knees involving surgical transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells with coverage of the treated chondral defects.[63] Centeno et al. have reported high field MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human clinical subjects as well as a large n=227 safety study.[64][65][66][67] Many other stem cell based treatments are operating outside the US, with much controversy being reported regarding these treatments as some feel more regulation is needed as clinics tend to exaggerate claims of success and minimize or omit risks.[68]

Adult stem cell treatments have been used for many years to successfully treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers utilizing bone marrow transplants.[57] The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo.

Clinical applications

Pluripotent stem cells, i.e. cells that can give rise to any fetal or adult cell type, can be found in a number of tissues, including umbilical cord blood.[47] Using genetic reprogramming, pluripotent stem cells equivalent to embryonic stem cells have been derived from human adult skin tissue.[48][49][50][51][52] Other adult stem cells are multipotent, meaning they are restricted in the types of cell they can become, and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (such as mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, etc.).[53][54] A great deal of adult stem cell research has focused on investigating their capacity to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and their potential for differentiation.[55] In mice, pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from adult fibroblast cultures.[56]

Sources

The therapeutic potential of adult stem cells is the focus of much scientific research, due to their ability to be harvested from the patient.[41][42][43] In common with embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells have the ability to differentiate into more than one cell type, but unlike the former they are often restricted to certain types or "lineages". The ability of a differentiated stem cell of one lineage to produce cells of a different lineage is called transdifferentiation. Some types of adult stem cells are more capable of transdifferentiation than others, but for many there is no evidence that such a transformation is possible. Consequently, adult stem therapies require a stem cell source of the specific lineage needed, and harvesting and/or culturing them up to the numbers required is a challenge.[44][45] Additionally, cues from the immediate environment (including how stiff or porous the surrounding structure/extracellular matrix is) can alter or enhance the fate and differentiation of the stem cells.[46]

Adult stem cell therapies

Multipotent stem cells have also been derived from germ cells found in human testicles.[40]

Multipotent stem cells with a claimed equivalency to embryonic stem cells have been derived from spermatogonial progenitor cells found in the testicles of laboratory mice by scientists in Germany[31][32][33] and the United States,[34][35][36][37] and, a year later, researchers from Germany and the United Kingdom confirmed the same capability using cells from the testicles of humans.[38] The extracted stem cells are known as human adult germline biggmacc stem cells (GSCs)[39]

Testicular cells

Hair follicles contain two types of stem cells, one of which appears to represent a remnant of the stem cells of the embryonic neural crest. Similar cells have been found in the gastrointestinal tract, sciatic nerve, cardiac outflow tract and spinal and sympathetic ganglia. These cells can generate neurons, Schwann cells, myofibroblast, chondrocytes and melanocytes.[29][30]

Neural crest stem cells

Olfactory adult stem cells have been successfully harvested from the human olfactory mucosa cells, which are found in the lining of the nose and are involved in the sense of smell.[28] If they are given the right chemical environment these cells have the same ability as embryonic stem cells to develop into many different cell types. Olfactory stem cells hold the potential for therapeutic applications and, in contrast to neural stem cells, can be harvested with ease without harm to the patient. This means they can be easily obtained from all individuals, including older patients who might be most in need of stem cell therapies.

Olfactory adult stem cells

Neural stem cells share many properties with haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Remarkably, when injected into the blood, neurosphere-derived cells differentiate into various cell types of the immune system.[27]

Neural stem cells are commonly cultured in vitro as so called neurospheres – floating heterogeneous aggregates of cells, containing a large proportion of stem cells.[24] They can be propagated for extended periods of time and differentiated into both neuronal and glia cells, and therefore behave as stem cells. However, some recent studies suggest that this behaviour is induced by the culture conditions in progenitor cells, the progeny of stem cell division that normally undergo a strictly limited number of replication cycles in vivo.[25] Furthermore, neurosphere-derived cells do not behave as stem cells when transplanted back into the brain.[26]

The existence of stem cells in the adult brain has been postulated following the discovery that the process of neurogenesis, the birth of new neurons, continues into adulthood in rats.[20] The presence of stem cells in the mature primate brain was first reported in 1967.[21] It has since been shown that new neurons are generated in adult mice, songbirds and primates, including humans. Normally, adult neurogenesis is restricted to two areas of the brain – the subventricular zone, which lines the lateral ventricles, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation.[22] Although the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus is well established, the presence of true self-renewing stem cells there has been debated.[23] Under certain circumstances, such as following tissue damage in ischemia, neurogenesis can be induced in other brain regions, including the neocortex.

Neural stem cells

Endothelial stem cells are one of the three types of multipotent stem cells found in the bone marrow. They are a rare and controversial group with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, the cells that line blood vessels.

Endothelial stem cells

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of stromal origin and may differentiate into a variety of tissues. MSCs have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood, Wharton's jelly from the umbilical cord,[18] and teeth (perivascular niche of dental pulp and periodontal ligament).[19] MSCs are attractive for clinical therapy due to their ability to differentiate, provide trophic support, and modulate innate immune response.[18]

Mesenchymal stem cells

Intestinal stem cells divide continuously throughout life and use a complex genetic program to produce the cells lining the surface of the small and large intestines.[16] Intestinal stem cells reside near the base of the stem cell niche, called the crypts of Lieberkuhn. Intestinal stem cells are probably the source of most cancers of the small intestine and colon.[17]

Intestinal stem cells

[15] Mammary stem cells provide the source of cells for growth of the

Mammary stem cells

Hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and umbilical cord blood and give rise to all the blood cell types.

[14]

Hematopoietic stem cells

Types

Stem cell function becomes impaired with age, and this contributes to progressive deterioration of tissue maintenance and repair.[13] A likely important cause of increasing stem cell dysfunction is age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and the cells that comprise the stem cell environment.[13] (See also DNA damage theory of aging.)

Aging

[12][11][10][9] Co-purification of BLSC's and VSEL cells with other populations of adult stem cells may explain the apparent pluripotency of adult stem cell populations. However, recent studies have shown that both human and murine VSEL cells lack stem cell characteristics and are not pluripotent.[8] As BLSC's and VSEL cells are present in virtually all adult tissues, including lung, brain, kidneys, muscles, and pancreas[7] These cells are referred to as "Blastomere Like Stem Cells" (Am Surg. 2007 Nov;73:1106-10) and "very small embryonic like" - "VSEL" stem cells, and display pluripotency in vitro.[7] This phenomenon is referred to as stem cell [6] Stem cells from the bone marrow, which is derived from mesoderm, can differentiate into liver, lung, GI tract and skin, which are derived from endoderm and mesoderm.[5] Discoveries in recent years have suggested that adult stem cells might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. For instance, neural stem cells from the brain, which are derived from ectoderm, can differentiate into ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Plasticity/Adult stem cell pluripotency

These developmental pathways are also strongly implicated as stem cell regulators.[4]
The Notch pathway has been known to developmental biologists for decades. Its role in control of stem cell proliferation has now been demonstrated for several cell types including haematopoietic, neural, and mammary[3] stem cells.

Adult stem cell research has been focused on uncovering the general molecular mechanisms that control their self-renewal and differentiation.

Signaling pathways

targeted therapies for the treatment of clinical depression. neural stem cell onto the cell. This complicates the design of drugs, for instance multidrug resistance Many pharmaceuticals are exported by these transporters conferring [2]

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