World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Afghan diaspora

Article Id: WHEBN0028092580
Reproduction Date:

Title: Afghan diaspora  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Afghans in Pakistan, Hazara diaspora, Afghanistan, Afghan diaspora, Afghans in India
Collection: Afghan Diaspora
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Afghan diaspora

Afghan Diaspora
Languages
Pashto, Dari (Persian dialect), other Languages of Afghanistan and the languages spoken in the respective country of residence.
Religion
Predominantly Sunni Islam and Shia Islam with small communities of Baha'is, Christians and Jews

Afghan diaspora or Afghan immigrants are citizens of Afghanistan who have emigrated to other countries, or people of Afghan origin who are born outside Afghanistan. Traditionally the borders in between Afghanistan and its southern and eastern neighbouring state have been fluid and vague.[1] Like many nations created by European empires, the borders often do not follow ethnic divisions, and many ethnic groups and tribes native to Afghanistan are found on both sides of Afghanistan's present-day northern and especially southern borders.[2] This meant that historically there was much movement across present day barriers.[2]

But ever since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan refugees have fled into the surrounding states. After the Soviets left, civil war, Taliban conquest, and most recently the Western-led invasion have meant constant warfare in Afghanistan. Millions have fled the violence, then in times of relative peace returned, only to flee again when renewed fighting broke out. About six million Afghan refugees have fled to neighboring Pakistan (mainly NWFP) and Iran, making Afghanistan the largest refugee-producing country in the world, a title it has held for 32 years.[3] 95% of Afghan refugees are located in either Iran or Pakistan.[3] Some NATO countries that were part of the NATO forces took in refugees or Afghans that worked with their respective forces.[4] Ethnic minorities, like Afghan Sikhs and Hindus, often fled to India.[5]

In 2013, more than 2.8 million Afghan refugees were living in Iran with only 0.8 million of them being registered as legal migrants and rest living as illegal refugees in Iran. Similarly 1.5 million officially registered Afghan refugees were reported to be living in Pakistan in addition to approximately one million more illegal refugees.[6][7]

As shown in the table below, the refugees (both legal and illegal) fled Afghanistan in four main waves:[6][8]


Country/Region Soviet war in Afghanistan (1978-89) Civil War (1992–96) Taliban Rule (1996–2001) War in Afghanistan (2001–present) - Present
Pakistan 3,100,000 [9] 2,500,000 [6][7][A 1]
Iran 3,100,000 [9] 1,452,513 - 2,400,000 [10][11][A 2]
UAE 300,000 [12] [A 3]
Germany 126,334 [13] [A 4]
United States 90,000 [14] [A 5]
United Kingdom 56,000 [15] [A 6]
Australia 19,416 [16] [A 7]
Austria 18,226
Denmark 15,854 [17] [A 8]
India 18,000 [18] [A 9]
Canada 4,215 [19] [A 10] 5,390 [19] [A 11] 10,320 [19] [A 12] 16,240 [19] [A 13]
Sweden 6,904 [20] [A 14]
Tajikistan 1161 [21] 15,336 [21] 3,427 [21] [A 15]
Qatar 2,600 [22] [A 16]
Syria 1,750 [23] [A 17]
Turkey 4,150 [24] [A 18]

Afghan refugees returning from Pakistan in 2004
Afghan refugees, living on the Canal Saint Martin, underneath a bridge 2010

Annotations

  1. ^ 2013
  2. ^ 2013
  3. ^ 2012
  4. ^ 2009 Census
  5. ^ 2011 Census
  6. ^ 2009
  7. ^ 2006 census
  8. ^ 2006 census
  9. ^ 2011 news report
  10. ^ 2006 census
  11. ^ 2006 census
  12. ^ 2006 census
  13. ^ 2006 census
  14. ^ 2007
  15. ^ 2003 news report
  16. ^ 2012 news report
  17. ^ 2013 UNHCR report
  18. ^ 2005 UNHCR report


Bibliography

Notes
  1. ^ "The Durand line:History, Consequences, and Future". Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Carberry 2013
  3. ^ a b BBC News 2013
  4. ^ Stainburn 2013
  5. ^ Bose 2006
  6. ^ a b c Nordland 2013
  7. ^ a b United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 2013
  8. ^ National Geographic Society 2013, p. 1
  9. ^ a b United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1999
  10. ^ Demographics of Iran
  11. ^ "Afghan refugees in Iran". Retrieved 15 May 2014. 
  12. ^ Shahbandari 2012
  13. ^ Haug & Müssig 2009, p. 76 chart 5
  14. ^ United States Census Bureau 2013
  15. ^ Jones 2010, p. 2
  16. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006
  17. ^ Denmark Bureau of Statistics 2014
  18. ^ Associated Press 2013
  19. ^ a b c d Statistics Canada 2006
  20. ^ Government of Afghanistan 2007
  21. ^ a b c Erlich 2006
  22. ^ Iqbal 2012
  23. ^ UNHCR - Syrian Arab Republic
  24. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 2005, p. 393

Further reading

  • Government of Afghanistan (2007). "Embassy of Afghanistan in Sweden".  
  •  
  •  
  • Bose, Nayana (March 10, 2006). "Afghan refugees in India become Indian, at last".  
  •  
  • Carberry, Sean (May 7, 2013). "Afghan-Pakistani Forces Exchange Fire Along Shared Border".  
  • Erlich, Aaron (July 2006). "Tajikistan: From Refugee Sender to Labor Exporter". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved November 7, 2013. 
  • Haug, Dr. habil. Sonja; Müssig, Stephanie M.A. & Dr. Anja Stichs (2009). Bundesamt für Flüchtlinge und Migration : Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland (in German) (2009 ed.). 
  • Iqbal, Mohamed (July 7, 2012). "Kabul looks to Qatar support at aid meet".  
  • Jones, Sophie (July 2010). "Afghans in the UK".  
  •  
  • Nordland, Rod (November 20, 2013). "Afghan Migrants in Iran Face Painful Contradictions but Keep Coming".  
  • Shahbandari, Shafaat (November 30, 2012). "Afghans take hope from UAE’s achievements".  
  • Stainburn, Samantha (May 22, 2013). "UK, Denmark to give Afghan interpreters visas".  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.