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Alan Cunningham

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Title: Alan Cunningham  
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Subject: 1st Infantry Division (South Africa), Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, Operation Agatha, 9th (Highland) Infantry Division
Collection: 1887 Births, 1983 Deaths, Anglo-Irish People, British Army Generals of World War II, British Army Personnel of World War I, British High Commissioners of Palestine, British Military Personnel of the Palestine Emergency, Commanders of the Legion of Merit, Companions of the Distinguished Service Order, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Crown (Belgium), Knights Commander of the Order of the Bath, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George, People Educated at Cheltenham College, People from Dublin (City), Recipients of the Military Cross, Recipients of the Order of Menelik II, Royal Artillery Officers
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Alan Cunningham

Cunningham grave, Dean Cemetery

GCMG, KCBDSOMC (1 May 1887 – 30 January 1983) was a senior officer of the British Army noted for his victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during the Second World War. Later he served as the seventh and last High Commissioner of Palestine. He was the younger brother of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Cunningham of Hyndhope.

Contents

  • Early career and First World War 1
  • Second World War 2
  • Post-war 3
  • Orders and decorations 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Early career and First World War

Cunningham was born in Dublin, Ireland, the third son of Professor Daniel John Cunningham and his wife Elizabeth Cumming Browne.[1] He was educated at Cheltenham College and the Royal Military Academy before taking a commission in the Royal Artillery in 1906.[2] During the First World War, he served with the Royal Horse Artillery, and was awarded a Military Cross in 1915 and the Distinguished Service Order in 1918. For two years after the war he served as a staff officer in the Straits Settlements.[2]

In 1937 Cunningham became the Commander Royal Artillery of the 1st Infantry Division.[2] This was followed in 1938 by promotion to major general and appointment as commander of the 5th Anti-Aircraft Division.[2]

Second World War

General Sir Alan Cunningham

After the beginning of Second World War, Cunningham held a number of short appointments commanding infantry divisions in the United Kingdom (66th Division, 9th Division and 51st Division)[2] before being promoted to lieutenant-general to take command of the East Africa Force in Kenya.[2]

During the East African Campaign General Sir Archibald Wavell, the Commander-in-Chief of the British Middle East Command, directed Cunningham to retake British Somaliland and free Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from the Italians whilst forces under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir William Platt would attack from Sudan in the north through Eritrea. Cunningham's offensive started with the occupation of the Indian Ocean ports of Kismayu (Italian: Chisimaio ) and Mogadishu (Italian: Mogadiscio), the Italians having fled into the interior of Somalia. On 6 April 1941, Cunningham's forces entered Addis Ababa. On 11 May the northernmost units of Cunningham's forces, under South African Brigadier Dan Pienaar linked with Platt's forces under Major-General Mosley Mayne to besiege Amba Alagi. On 20 May, Mayne took the surrender of the Italian Army, led by Amedeo di Savoia, 3rd Duke of Aosta, at Amba Alagi.

Cunningham's campaign was a swift action which resulted in the taking of 50,000 prisoners and the loss of only 500 of his men.

His success in East Africa led to Cunningham's appointment to command the newly formed Eighth Army in North Africa in August 1941.[2] His immediate task was to lead General Sir Claude Auchinleck's Libyan Desert offensive which began on 18 November. However, early losses led Cunningham to recommend the offensive be curtailed. This advice was not accepted by his superiors, and Auchinleck relieved him of his command.[2] He returned to Britain to serve the remainder of the war as Commandant of the Staff College, Camberley (1942) and General Officer C-in-C in Northern Ireland (1943) and Eastern Command (1944).[2] He was knighted in 1941.

Post-war

After the war, Cunningham, who was promoted to general on 30 October 1945, returned to the Middle East as High Commissioner of Palestine; he served in the position from 1945 to 1948.[2] As such, he was in charge of Britain's head-on confrontation with Zionist underground and militia groups who in this period challenged its rule in Palestine – the Hagana, Etzel and Lehi.

Cunningham had retired from the army in October 1946 when he relinquished the role of Commander-in-Chief Palestine, but retained the job of High Commissioner until 1948.[2] As such he had the task of winding up British rule and departing the country in May 1948, with the British mandate expired, and in the midst of bitter war between still un-proclaimed Israel (the State of Israel was declared during the final hours of the British Mandate) and the Palestinian militias, with Arab armies poised to invade as soon as the British withdrew. The photo of Cunningham taking down the British flag at the port of Haifa is a historical photo often reproduced in Israeli history textbooks.

Cunningham also served as Colonel Commandant of the Royal Artillery until 1954.[3]

Cunningham died in Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England. He is buried with his father and mother under a very simple monument near the Dean Gallery entrance to Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh.

Orders and decorations

(This list is incomplete.)

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives
  3. ^ Houterman & Koppes
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l

External links

  • Biographical entry for Cunningham on the Generals of World War II website
Military offices
Preceded by
Edward Beck
General Officer Commanding the 9th (Highland) Division
June 1940 – August 1940
Succeeded by
Formation disbanded
Preceded by
Douglas Dickinson
GOC East Africa Force
1940–1941
Succeeded by
Harry Wetherall
Preceded by
New formation
Commander-in Chief, Eighth Army
9 September 1941–26 November 1941
Succeeded by
Neil Ritchie
Preceded by
Montagu Stopford
Commandant of the Staff College, Camberley
1942–1943
Succeeded by
Douglas Wimberley
Preceded by
Vivian Majendie
General Officer Commanding the British Army in Northern Ireland
29 July 1943–31 October 1944
Succeeded by
Gerard Bucknall
Preceded by
Sir Kenneth Anderson
GOC-in-C Eastern Command
December 1944 – August 1945
Succeeded by
Sir Oliver Leese
Government offices
Preceded by
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort
High Commissioner of Palestine
21 November 1945–14 May 1948
Succeeded by
Chaim Weizmann
(First President of Israel)

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