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Alexandros Svolos

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Title: Alexandros Svolos  
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Subject: National Liberation Front (Greece), Greek Resistance, Socialist Party of Greece, Political Committee of National Liberation, Ioannis Rallis
Collection: 1892 Births, 1956 Deaths, Aromanian People, Democratic Alignment Politicians, Democratic Socialists, Greek MacEdonia in World War II, Greek MacEdonians, Greek Mps 1950–51, Greek Mps 1956–58, Greek People of Aromanian Descent, Greek People of World War II, Greek Resistance Members, Greek Revolutionaries, Greek Socialists, Liberal Democratic Union (Greece) Politicians, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Alumni, National Liberation Front (Greece) Members, Ottoman Kruševo, People from Kruševo, People from Manastir Vilayet, Prime Ministers of Greece, Republicanism in Greece, Socialist Party of Greece Politicians, World War II Political Leaders
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Alexandros Svolos

Alexandros Svolos
Aλέξανδρος Σβώλος
Chairman of the Political Committee of National Liberation
In office
18 April 1944 – 9 October 1944
Preceded by Evripidis Bakirtzis
Succeeded by government of national unity)
Personal details
Born 1892
Died 22 February 1956
Political party Socialist Party of Greece
Profession Professor of Law
Religion Greek Orthodox

Alexandros Svolos (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Σβώλος; 1892, Krousovo, Manastir Vilayet, Ottoman Empire – 22 February 1956, Athens, Greece) was a prominent Greek legal expert, who also served as president of the Political Committee of National Liberation, a Resistance-based government during the Axis Occupation of Greece.

Early life

Svolos was born in 1892 in Kruševo, now in the Republic of Macedonia, then part of the Ottoman Empire. He studied law at Constantinople in 1911-1912, and from there went on to study at the University of Athens under Nikolaos Saripolos. In 1915 he was appointed to teach at the University.

Between 1917 and 1920, he was the head of the Labour and Social Policy Direction at the Ministry of National Economy, and helped to push through legislation ratifying the newly founded Bursa in Asia Minor, then occupied by the Greek Army, until 1922.

In 1929 he succeeded his mentor, N. Saripolos, at the seat of Constitutional Law at Athens, a position he retained until 1946. Because of his left-leaning political views, he was dismissed in 1935 and again during the Metaxas Regime in 1936, when he was sent to internal exile in various Aegean islands.

Political activity during and after the Second World War

After the German invasion in April 1941, Greece was occupied by the Axis, and divided into German, Italian and Bulgarian zones. Svolos, at the head of a Committee of Macedonians and Thracians, sent repeated protests to the German authorities protesting the Bulgarians' open annexation of Greek territory and their maltreatment of the local Greek population.

In the meantime, the Resistance movement had been growing, and by early 1944, a large part of the Greek mainland was free, under the control of the Resistance. In March, the leftist EAM/ELAS movement set up a government of its own, the Political Committee of National Liberation (PEEA), rivaling both the collaborationist one in Athens and the King's government in exile in Cairo. In April 1944, Svolos agreed to become its president, while Evripidis Bakirtzis, his predecessor, became its vice-president.

In this role, Svolos participated in the Dekemvriana. After EAM's defeat in the Dekemvriana, he was again dismissed from his teaching post at the University.

Svolos then became president of the small Socialist ELD party until 1953, when it was merged with the Thessaloniki in 1950 and 1956, but died three days after the latter.

Academic career

Alexandros Svolos was among the most prominent experts on constitutional law in Greece, and held strong democratic and socialist views, which put him often at odds with the Greek establishment of the time.

His very first academic treatise was his doctoral thesis in 1915, where he examined the constitutional right of workers to form unions. His expertise in labour matters was recognized by his appointment to the Labour Directorate in the Ministry of National Economy. In 1928, he published a study on the

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