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Algiers expedition (1541)

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Title: Algiers expedition (1541)  
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Subject: Capture of Algiers (1529), Capture of Algiers (1516), Fall of Tlemcen (1517), Expedition to Mostaganem (1558), Conquest of Tunis (1534)
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Algiers expedition (1541)

Siege of Algiers
Part of the Ottoman-Habsburg wars

Siege of Algiers in 1541. Engraving of 1555.
Date October – November 1541
Location Algiers
Result Ottoman victory
Belligerents
Empire of Charles V: Order of Saint John
 Republic of Genoa
 Papal States
 Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Charles V
Navy: Andrea Doria
Army: Duke of Alba[1]
Including:
Hernán Cortés
Gianettino Doria
Ferrante Gonzaga
Bernardino de Mendoza
Hassan Agha
Strength
Total of 80 galleys
Total of 500 ships.[1]
12,000 sailors.[1]
24,000 soldiers.[1]
Including:
100 transports.[1]
50 galleys.[1]
100 transports.[1]
14 galleys
8 galleys
150 transports.[1]
700 knights.
800 soldiers
5,000 Moors.[1][2]
Casualties and losses
300 officers.[1]
17,000 men.[1]
17 galleys
130 carracks.[1]

The Algiers expedition of 1541 occurred when Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire attempted to lead a fleet against the Ottoman Empire stronghold of Algiers, in modern Algeria. Largely because of stormy weather, the expedition was a failure.

Background

Algiers had been under the control of the Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent since its capture in 1529 by Barbarossa. Barbarossa had left Algiers in 1535 to be named High Admiral of the Ottoman Empire in Constantinople, and was replaced as Governor by Hassan Agha, an eunuch and Sardinian renegade.[1]Hassan had in his service the well-known Ottoman naval commanders Dragut, Sālih Reïs and Sinān Pasha.[1]

Charles V made considerable preparations for the expedition, wishing to obtain revenge for the recent siege of Buda,[3] However the Spanish fleet was severely damaged by a storm, forcing him to abandon the venture.[4][5]

Expedition

Charles V embarked very late in the season, on 28 September 1541, delayed by troubles in Germany and Flanders.[1][6] The fleet was assembled in the Bay of Palma, at Majorca.[1] It had more than 500 sails and 24,000 soldiers.[1]

After enduring difficult weather, the fleet only arrived in front of Algiers on 19 October.[7] The most distinguished Spanish commanders accompanied Charles V on this expedition, including Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of Mexico, though he was never invited to the War Council.[6]

Troops were disembarked on 23 October, and Charles established his headquarters on a land promontory surrounded by German troops.[6] Spanish, German and Italian troops, accompanied by 150 knights of Malta, began to land while repelling Algerine opposition, soon surrounding the city, except for the northern part.[1]

The fate of the city seemed to be sealed, however the following day the weather became severe with heavy rains. Many galleys lost their anchors and 15 were wrecked onshore. Another 33 carracks sank, while many more were dispersed.[8] As more troops were attempting to land, the Algerines started to make sorties, slaughtering the newly arrived. Charles V was surrounded, and was only saved by the resistance of the Knights of Malta.[9]

Andrea Doria managed to find a safer harbour for the remainder of the fleet at Cape Matifu, 5 miles east of Algiers. He enjoined Charles V to abandon his position and join him in Matifu, which Charles V did with great difficulty.[10] From there, still oppressed by the weather, the remaining troops sailed to Bougie, still a Spanish harbour at that time. Charles could only depart for the open sea on 23 November.[11] He finally reached Cartagena, in southeast Spain, on 3 December.[12]

Losses amongst the invading force were heavy with 17 galleys and 130 carracks lost, plus large numbers of sailors and soldiers.[13]

Aftermath

The disaster considerably weakened the Spanish, and Hassan Agha took the opportunity to attack Mers-el-Kebir, the harbour of the Spanish base of Oran, in July 1542.[14]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r The Story of the Barbary Corsairs by Stanley Lane-Poole p.114ff [1]
  2. ^ by John Murray (Firm),Sir Robert Lambert Playfair p.38Handbook for travellers in Algeria and Tunis, Algiers, Oran, Constantine ...
  3. ^ Garnier, p.201
  4. ^ by Jeremy Black p.177European warfare, 1494-1660
  5. ^ E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936 by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma p.258 [2]
  6. ^ a b c Garnier, p.202
  7. ^ Garnier, p.203
  8. ^ Garnier, p.204ff
  9. ^ Garnier, p.204
  10. ^ Garnier, p.205
  11. ^ Garnier, p.207
  12. ^ Garnier, p.206
  13. ^ Garnier, p.208
  14. ^ A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period by Jamil M. Abun-Nasr p.155 ff

References

  • Garnier, Edith L'Alliance Impie Editions du Felin, 2008, Paris ISBN 978-2-86645-678-8 Interview

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