Aminoguanidine

Pimagedine


Identifiers
CAS number 79-17-4 YesY
PubChem 2146 YesY
ChemSpider 2061 N
UNII SCQ4EZQ113 N
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula CH6N4
Molar mass 74.09 g mol−1
Density 1.72 g/ml
Boiling point

261 °C, 534 K, 502 °F

log P −1.475
Related compounds
Related compounds Guanidine
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Pimagedine, also known as aminoguanidine, is an investigational drug for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy that is no longer under development as a drug.[1] Pimagedine is a diamine oxidase and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. It acts to reduce levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) through interacting with 3-deoxyglucosone.

Development as a potential drug

Pimagedine was under development as a drug for kidney diseases by the pharmaceutical company, Alteon (now known Synvista Therapeutics Inc) that was founded in 1986.[2]

In 1987, Alteon acquired a license to intellectual property relating to AGE inhibition from Rockefeller University.[3]

In 1989, Alteon and Marion Merrell Dow Inc (MMD) entered into a joint development program for pimagedine.[4]

In 1992, Alteon licensed a patent from Rockefeller University relating to the use of pimagedine to inhibit AGE formation.[3]

In 1995, Hoechst AG (now sanofi-aventis) acquired MMD and subsequently terminated its agreement with Alteon, which led Alteon to stop of all clinical trials due to lack of funds, which caused some controversy.[4]

In 1997, Alteon and Genentech announced a collaboration agreement under which Genentech would fund development of pimagedine and would have the rights to sell the drug if it would be approved.[5]

In March 1998, Alteon announced that it had been advised that it should discontinue its Phase III trial of pimagedine in non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes patients with overt nephropathy, after the trial's external safety monitoring committee found an increased risk of side effects in the treatment group.[6]

In November 1998, Alteon announced that its Phase III trial for pimagedine as a treatment for end stage renal disease had failed to prove efficacy, which led Carl Gordon, a leading biotech analyst, to say: "It looks like pimagedine is probably finished."[7]

In February, 1999, Genentech ended its collaboration with Alteon to develop pimagedine.[8]

In April 1999 Alteon announced that it would cease development of pimagedine as a treatment for end stage renal disease but might consider continuing development in type 1 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy or progressive kidney disease.[9]

Alteon's 2000, 2001, 2002 annual reports indicated that it was not running any clinical trials on pimagedine but was seeking co-development partners.[3][10][11] Alteon's 2003 and subsequent annual reports did not mention that Alteon was seeking partners for pimagenine,[12] which indicated that efforts to interest other companies and investors had failed and which signaled that commercial efforts to develop pimagedine as a drug were indeed finished.

Uses for other aminoguanidines

Aminoguanidines and their derivatives are also being developed for energetic material applications. Thorough combustion of aminoguanidines can produce voluminous non-toxic gases, at moderate temperatures, with a minimum of smoke or dust.[13] This characteristic favors application to explosive gas generators for automotive airbags, and solid-rocket propellants that generate high thrust per kilogram, while emitting minimal visible smoke or infrared radiation (useful militarily as well as to reduce environmental impact). Aminoguanidines can also be used as precursors for the synthesis of tetrazole-based energetic materials and drugs.[14]

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.