World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Aminolevulinic acid

Article Id: WHEBN0000538946
Reproduction Date:

Title: Aminolevulinic acid  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Light therapy, Biomolecules, Protochlorophyllide, Hydroxymethylbilane, Stercobilin
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Aminolevulinic acid

δ-Aminolevulinic acid
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-amino-4-oxo-pentanoic acid
Clinical data
Pregnancy
category
  • C
Legal status
  • (Prescription only)
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  Y
ATC code L01
PubChem CID:
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank  Y
ChemSpider  Y
UNII  Y
KEGG  Y
ChEBI  Y
ChEMBL  Y
Chemical data
Formula C5H9NO3
Molecular mass 131.13 g/mol
Physical data
Melting point 118 °C (244 °F)
 Y   

δ-Aminolevulinic acid (dALA or δ-ALA or 5ala or 5-aminolevulinic acid ) is the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway, the pathway that leads to heme in mammals and chlorophyll in plants.

In plants, production of δ-ALA is the step on which the speed of synthesis of chlorophyll is regulated. Plants that are fed by external δ-ALA accumulate toxic amounts of chlorophyll precursor, protochlorophyllide, indicating that the synthesis of this intermediate is not suppressed anywhere downwards in the chain of reaction. Protochlorophyllide is a strong photosensitizer in plants.

Contents

  • Biosynthesis 1
  • Clinical significance 2
    • Cancer diagnosis 2.1
    • Cancer treatment 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Biosynthesis

In non-photosynthetic eukaryotes such as animals, insects, fungi, and protozoa, as well as the α-proteobacteria group of bacteria, it is produced by the enzyme ALA synthase, from glycine and succinyl CoA. This reaction is known as the Shemin pathway, which occurs in mitochondria.[1]

In plants, algae, bacteria (except for the α-proteobacteria group) and archaea, it is produced from glutamic acid via glutamyl-tRNA and glutamate-1-semialdehyde. The enzymes involved in this pathway are glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, and glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase. This pathway is known as the C5 or Beale pathway.[2][3] In most plastid-containing species, glutamyl-tRNA is encoded by a plastid gene, and the transcription, as well as the following steps of C5 pathway, take place in plastids.[4]

Clinical significance

It elicits synthesis and accumulation of fluorescent porphyrins (protoporphyrin IX) in epithelia and neoplastic tissues, among them malignant gliomas. It is used to visualise tumorous tissue in neurosurgical procedures.[5] Studies have shown that the intraoperative use of this guiding method may reduce the tumour residual volume and prolong progression-free survival in patients suffering from this disease.[6][7]

Being a precursor of photosensitizer, aminolevulinic acid is also a used as an agent for photodynamic therapy.

Cancer diagnosis

Photodynamic detection is the use of photosensitive drugs with a light source of the right wavelength for the detection of cancer, using fluorescence of the drug.

5-Aminolevulinic acid can be used to visualize bladder cancer.[8]

Cancer treatment

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment possibilities include those for cancer of the prostate, breast, giant BCC (skin), cervix, recurrent bladder, vulvar, brain (human glioblastoma cells), HPV, lung, stomach, head and neck, penis, and colon, as well as those for leukemia, Barrett's esophagus, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Bowen's disease, and other types of cancer.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ajioka, James; Soldati, Dominique, eds. (September 13, 2007). "22". Toxoplasma: Molecular and Cellular Biology (1 ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 415.  
  2. ^ Beale SI (August 1990). "Biosynthesis of the Tetrapyrrole Pigment Precursor, delta-Aminolevulinic Acid, from Glutamate". Plant Physiol. 93 (4): 1273–9.  
  3. ^ Willows, R.D. (2004). "Chlorophylls". In Goodman, Robert M. Encyclopaedia of Plant and Crop Science. Marcel Dekker. pp. 258–262.  
  4. ^ Biswal, Basanti; Krupinska, Karin; Biswal, Udaya, eds. (2013). "22". Plastid Development in Leaves during Growth and Senescence (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration). Dordrecht: Springer. p. 508.  
  5. ^ Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y.; Buchfelder, Michael; Savaskan, Nic E. (2013). "Surgical resection of malignant gliomas—role in optimizing patient outcome". Nature Reviews Neurology 9 (3): 141–51.  
  6. ^ Stummer W, Pichlmeier U, Meinel T, Wiestler OD, Zanella F, Reulen HJ (2006). "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial". Lancet Oncol. 7 (5): 392–401.  
  7. ^ Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y.; Hore, Nirjhar; Savaskan, Nic E.; Grummich, Peter; Roessler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver (2012). Berger, Mitch, ed. "Improving the Extent of Malignant Glioma Resection by Dual Intraoperative Visualization Approach". PLoS ONE 7 (9): e44885.  
  8. ^ "Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer Overview of BCG Immunotherapy". 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.