World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery

Article Id: WHEBN0007193171
Reproduction Date:

Title: Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Left coronary artery, Atrial branches of coronary arteries, Left marginal artery, Arterial tree, Right coronary artery
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery

Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery
Sternocostal surface of heart. Anterior descending branch labeled at upper right
Details
Latin ramus interventricularis anterior arteriae coronariae sinistrae
Source left coronary artery
Branches septals, diagonals
Supplies anterolateral myocardium, apex, interventricular septum, 45-55% of the left ventricle (LV)
Dorlands
/Elsevier
r_02/12690388
Anatomical terminology

The left anterior descending artery (also LAD, anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery, or anterior descending branch), also known as the "widow maker", is an artery of the heart.[1]

Contents

  • Structure 1
    • Branches 1.1
  • Function 2
  • Widow maker 3
  • Additional images 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Structure

It passes at first behind the pulmonary artery and then comes forward between that vessel and the left auricula to reach the anterior interventricular sulcus, along which it descends to the incisura apicis cordis.

Although rare, multiple anomalous courses of the LAD have been described. These include the origin of the artery from the right sinus of valsalva.[2]

In 78% of cases, it reaches the apex of the heart.

Branches

The LAD gives off two types of branches: septals and diagonals.

  • Septals originate from the LAD at 90 degrees to the surface of the heart, perforating and supplying the anterior 2/3rds of the interventricular septum.
  • Diagonals run along the surface of the heart and supply the lateral wall of the left ventricle and the anterolateral papillary muscle.

Function

The artery supplies the anterolateral myocardium, apex, and interventricular septum. The LAD typically supplies 45-55% of the left ventricle (LV) and is therefore considered the most critical vessel in terms of myocardial blood supply.

EKG changes associated with left anterior descending territory ischemia include ST segment changes in leads V1-V4, 1 and AVL.

Tight, critical stenosis (95%) of the proximal LAD in a patient with Wellens' Warning

Widow maker

The widow maker is an alternate name for the anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery.[3][1] The name widow maker may also apply to the left coronary artery[4] or severe occlusions to that artery.[5][6]

This term is used because the left main coronary, and/or the left anterior descending supply blood to large areas of the heart. This means that if these arteries gets abruptly and completely occluded it will cause a massive [7]

From the minute a widow maker heart attack hits, survival time ranges from minutes to several hours. Rapidly progressing symptoms should signal the need for immediate attention. Symptoms of initial onset may include nausea, shortness of breath, pain in the head, jaw, arms or chest, numbness in fingers, often of a novel but imprecise sensation which builds with irregular heart beat. Early symptoms may be mistaken for food poisoning, flu or general malaise until they intensify. A widow maker cannot kill instantly but induces cardiac arrest which may do so within 10 to 20 minutes of no circulation. A victim with no pulse or breath is still alive, living off oxygen stored in the blood and may be able to be rescued if treatment is begun promptly within this window.[8]

Additional images

References

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ a b Topol, Eric J.; Califf, Robert M. (2007). Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 283.  
  2. ^ Ropers, D. (12 February 2002). "Anomalous Course of the Left Main or Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Originating From the Right Sinus of Valsalva: Identification of Four Common Variations by Electron Beam Tomography". Circulation 105 (6): 42e–43.  
  3. ^ Lewis, Kathryn (1 December 2009). Multiple Lead ECGs: A Practical Analysis of Arrhythmias. Cengage Learning. p. 10.  
  4. ^ Barbara J. Aehlert; Robert Vroman (2011). "22". Paramedic Practice Today: Above and Beyond (1st ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 819.  
  5. ^ Richard Beebe; Jeff Myers (11 December 2009). "34". Professional Paramedic, Volume I: Foundations of Paramedic Care. Cengage Learning. p. 764.  
  6. ^ Carlos S Restrepo; Dianna M. E. Bardo (1 January 2011). Cardiac Imaging. Thieme. p. 188.  
  7. ^ Morgan, David (June 13, 2008). "TV newsman Tim Russert dies of heart attack". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  8. ^ Kearl, Mary (June 2009). "Surviving a Widow-Maker Heart Attack". AOL Health. Retrieved June 2009. 

External links

  • Anatomy photo:20:09-0102 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Heart: The Left Coronary Artery and its Branches"
  • Anatomy figure: 20:03-08 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior view of the heart."
  • 168165435 at GPnotebook


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.