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Anti-Pakistan sentiment

Anti-Pakistan sentiment (also known as Pakistan-phobia or Pakophobia)[1][2][3][4] is a sentiment against Pakistanis as a people and/or a nation in a generalizing manner. Some political parties use these feelings to garner votes. The opposite of anti-Pakistan sentiment is pro-Pakistan sentiment.


Contents

  • India 1
    • Ideological 1.1
    • Sikh nationalism 1.2
    • Sports 1.3
    • Media 1.4
  • Bangladesh 2
  • Seperatists within Pakistan 3
  • Afghanistan 4
  • France 5
  • United Kingdom 6
  • Pakistani reactions 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9

India

Results of 2014 BBC World Service poll.
Views of Pakistan's influence by country[5]
Sorted by Pos-Neg
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos-Neg
 United States 5 85 10 -80
 Germany 5 80 15 -75
 Canada
10 79 11 -69
 Brazil 7 75 18 -68
 France 10 77 13 -67
 Israel 2 68 30 -66
 Spain 5 71 24 -66
 Australia 14 77 9 -63
 South Korea 12 66 22 -58
 United Kingdom 18 71 11 -53
 Russia 6 53 41 -47
 Chile 13 49 38 -36
 Japan 6 41 53 -35
 Peru 12 47 41 -35
 India 17 49 34 -32
 Mexico 14 44 42 -30
 Kenya 23 45 32 -22
 China 21 41 38 -20
 Turkey 25 41 34 -16
 Ghana 34 41 25 -7
 Nigeria 40 46 14 -6
 Indonesia 40 31 29 9
 Pakistan 44 29 27 15

Ideological

The Indian state does not accept the validity of the Two Nation Theory stating Muslims needed a homeland in South Asia.[6] Hindu nationalists in India support the idea of Akhand Bharat which means Undivided India, and treat the Partition of India as illegitimate.[7][7][8][9][10][10][11][12][13][14][15] There have been many anti-Pakistan demonstrations in India often involving violent protests in which Pakistani flags are burned.[16] In March 2014, approximately 66 students from Indian-controlled Kashmir were beaten by fellow students when they cheered the Pakistani cricket team in the cricket Asia cup. They were also charged with sedition but subsequently released.[17]

Sikh nationalism

The slogan "Death to Pakistan" (Pakistan Murdabad) was raised by Sikh leader Master Tara Singh in March 1947, soon after the Unionist Party cabinet of Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana resigned in the Punjab, and immediately after it was announced that the Muslim League would take over the reins of provincial government.[18][19][20] The resignation of the Khizar Tiwana government, composed of Muslim, Hindu, and Sikhs, followed the unrest caused by the call for the Direct Action Day by the Muslim League the previous year.[18][21]

According to historian Stanley Wolpert in A New History of India,[19] when the administration of Punjab was taken over by Muslim League, "Master Tara Singh, bearded leader of the militant Sikhs, called for direct action by his khalsa against the League at this time, igniting the powder keg of repressed violence that set the Punjab ablaze with his cry of "Pakistan Murdabad" ("Death to Pakistan"). Tara Singh and his followers were demanding a Sikh nation of their own, Sikhistan, and by demonstrating their willingness to die in defence of their homeland, they sought to prove the validity of their claim."[19] This slogan often was followed by religious fights and conflicts.[22][23][24]

Sports

Shiv Sena warned that it will not allow Pakistan to play any 2011 Cricket World Cup in Mumbai.[25] Pakistan Hockey Federation also feared of sending the national hockey of Pakistan because of anti-Pakistani sentiment in India.[26]

Media

Several major Bollywood films have depicted Pakistan in a hostile manner by portraying Pakistanis and the state as a hostile enemy.[27][28] Bollywood movies, however, have been highly popular in Pakistan and India's Bollywood movie star Shah Rukh Khan has advocated India-Pakistan reconciliation. Although Bollywood films were banned for 40 years prior to 2008 because Indian culture was officially viewed as being "vulgar", there had been an active black market during the period and little was done to disrupt it.[29]

In 2012, Raj Thackeray and his party Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) told Indian singer Asha Bhosle not to co-judge in Sur Kshetra, a musical reality show aired on a local television channel that featured Pakistani artists alongside Indians. The MNS threatened to disrupt the shoot among other consequences if the channel went on to air the show. However, amid tight security in a hotel conference, Bhosle played down the threat, saying she only understood the language of music and did not understand politics.[30]

Bangladesh

The relationship between Bangladesh and Pakistan is affected by past history. Due to political, economic, linguistic and ethnic discrimination by the Pakistani state before independence in 1971, and the atrocities against the Bengalis committed by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War, some people in Bangladesh abhor everything from Pakistan.[31] The Government of Bangladesh demands a formal apology for those atrocities from the Pakistani head of state, as well as putting on trial former military and political leaders who had played a role in the army action in then East Pakistan. Pakistan has continued to ignore this demand.[32]

In 2012 Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) abandon a planned cricket tour in Pakistan indefinitely amid fears over players' safety, following protests by Bangladeshis and a Facebook campaign against the visit.[33]

Seperatists within Pakistan

In Pakistan Baloch separatists express their anti-Pakistan sentiment by crying slogans like:"Death to Pakistan" (Pakistan Murdabad).[34][35][36] Also Sindhi nationalists condemn the making of Pakistan, officially evacuating ethno-linguistic indigenous Sindhi Hindus From Sindh, and making efforts to show Muslim Sindhi's a minority in their own home. Also the influx of illiterate population of people from India, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan and Punjab. Also efforts of different non ethnic people to end the status of Sindhi language from Sindh Province.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan–Pakistan relations have been negatively affected by issues related to the Durand Line, the 1978–present war (i.e. Mujahideen, Afghan refugees, Taliban insurgency and border skirmishes), including water and the growing influence of India in Afghanistan.[37][38] Most major attacks in Afghanistan are blamed on neighboring Pakistan and Iran. This makes anti-Pakistan sentiment run high in the country, particularly among the Afghan politicians.[39] From the 1970s onwards Pakistan supported rebels such as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Ahmad Shah Massoud,[40] Haqqanis, Taliban,[41] and others against the governments of Afghanistan.

In the 1990s, Pakistan's support to the Taliban movement led to strong anti-Pakistan sentiments in Afghanistan. According to Pakistan and Afghanistan expert Ahmed Rashid, "between 1994 and 1999, an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 Pakistanis trained and fought in Afghanistan" keeping the Taliban regime in power.[42] The role of the Pakistani military during that time has been described by international observers as a "creeping invasion" of Afghanistan.[42] UN documents also reveal the role of Arab and Pakistani support troops in Taliban massacre campaigns.[43]

In the course of the Taliban insurgency anti-Pakistan sentiment was again fuelled after a spate of suicide bombings by the Taliban, which in 2011 and 2012 caused 80% of the civilian casualties in Afghanistan, and which the Afghan government and many international officials claim is supported by Pakistan.[44][45] Demonstrations in Afghanistan have denounced Pakistan politically for its alleged role in Taliban attacks.[46] Afghan leaders such as Amrullah Saleh or Ahmad Wali Massoud (a younger brother of Ahmad Shah Massoud) have said, that their criticism is directed at the politics of the Pakistani military and not at Pakistan as a country. Both reiterated the distinction by saying that the Pakistani people had been very generous in providing shelter to Afghan refugees but that it was the policy of the Pakistani military which had caused so much suffering to the Afghan people.[47]

Anti-Pakistan sentiment have increased in Afghanistan after hundreds of suicide bombings and assassinations.[44] In 2011, while lecturing at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf claimed the reason for anti-Pakistan sentiment was Afghanistan's relationship to the former Soviet Union and India. His statement came despite Afghanistan being known for its historically fierce anti-Soviet resistance.

France

After the July 2005 bombings in London, there were waves of "Pakistanophobia" in France. A Pakistani community leader said a "right-wing newspaper, for instance, launched a ferocious campaign against Pakistanis in France and placed them in one basket, calling them a "cause for concern."[48]

United Kingdom

As of 2005, the United Kingdom had the largest overseas Pakistani community, who are known as British Pakistanis.[49] There have been periodic ethnic tensions faced by the Pakistani community. The first recorded use of the term "Paki" in a derogatory way was in the United Kingdom. It has also been used for non-Pakistani ethnic groups. The word is being reclaimed by younger British Pakistanis, who use it themselves.[50]

Pakistani reactions

Pakistani cable operators have accused foreign news organisations of airing "anti-Pakistan" material, according to the Secret Pakistan in which Pakistan's connection to the Taliban were explored. The BBC noted that while it was officially the action of broadcast operators in the country, "the Pakistani government is likely to have put pressure on [them] to impose the ban". The government denied this, saying that it was committed to "freedom of press and media".[51]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Kalim Siddiqui (1975). The functions of international conflict: a socio-economic study of Pakistan. Royal Book Co. Retrieved 3 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Yaacov Vertzberger (1984). Misperceptions in foreign policymaking: the Sino-Indian conflict, 1959–1962. Westview Press.  
  4. ^ K. K. Kaul (1952–1966). U.S.A. and the Hindustan Peninsula. Google Books. even though it was easy to fan Pakophobia under the circumstances.43 The Prime Minister of Pakistan, on the other hand, asserted that Nehru was not afraid of aggression from Pakistan, but was protesting against US aid for fear of.. 
  5. ^ "2014 BBC World Service poll". 
  6. ^ Hardgrave, Robert. "India: The Dilemmas of Diversity", Journal of Democracy, pp. 54–65
  7. ^ a b Yale H. Ferguson and R. J. Barry Jones, Political space: frontiers of change and governance in a globalizing world, page 155, SUNY Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-7914-5460-2
  8. ^ Alison Blunt, Domicile and Diaspora, page 29, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4443-9918-9
  9. ^ "Timeline: Ayodhya crisis", BBC News, 17 October 2003.
  10. ^ a b Ulrika Mårtensson and Jennifer Bailey, Fundamentalism in the Modern World (Volume 1), page 97, I.B.Tauris, 2011, ISBN 978-1-84885-330-0
  11. ^ Jyotirmaya Sharma, "Ideological heresy?, The Hindu, 19 June 2005
  12. ^ Radhika Ramaseshan, "Advani fires Atal weapon", The Telegraph, 16 June 2005
  13. ^ Ashish Vashi, "Anti-Sardar Patel book sold from RSS HQ in Gujarat", The Times of India, 27 August 2009
  14. ^ Manini Chatterjee, "Only by Akhand Bharat", The Indian Express, 1 February 2007
  15. ^ Sucheta Majumder, "Right Wing Mobilization in India", Feminist Review, issue 49, page 17, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 978-0-415-12375-4
  16. ^ "ABVP, AIATF protest against Mumbai blasts". Hindustan Times  – via  
  17. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/66-students-expelled-cheering-pakistan-cricket-131410943.html
  18. ^ a b Vohra, Ranbir (2001), The Making of India: A Historical Survey, M.E. Sharpe, pp. 177–,  
  19. ^ a b c  
  20. ^ Moon, Penderel (1962), Divide and Quit, University of California Press, p. 77, GGKEY:4N8AYYFTYFJ, retrieved 23 July 2012 
  21. ^ Singh, Anita Inder (2002), "The Origins of the Partition of India 1936–1947", in Mushrul Hasan, The Partition Omnibus, Delhi: Oxford University Press, p. 218,   Quote: The attitude of the provincial Congress and Sikh leaders was provocative and hysterical. But it was explicable because the League's attitude during its agitation against the Khizar coalition was one of arrogance towards the minorities and it had never given them any indication of what Pakistan meant or what it might offer them in return for support. The League, as Jenkins pointed out, had also set a foreboding precedent by overthrowing a popular ministry by force, and, after the announcement of 20 February, had made every suggestion that it would capture the Punjab by any means. On 4 March Hindu and Sikh students took out a procession through the main part of Lahore shouting "Pakistan Murdabad", "Jinnah Murdabad" and according to Dawn "Allaho-Akbar Murdabad". Rioting broke out in Lahore and Multan, and Khizar resigned as caretaker Prime Minister, chiefly because his ministry could not control the situation.
  22. ^ Rajendra Kumar Mishra (2012). Babri Mosque: A Clash of Civilizations. Dorrance Publishing,. p. 103.  
  23. ^ Nagappan, Ramu (2005). Speaking havoc social suffering and South Asian narratives. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 91.  
  24. ^ Literature & nation : Britain and India : 1800–1990 (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge [u.a.] 2000. p. 355.  
  25. ^ "Sena leader announces veiled threat on World Cup final involving Pakistan". The Hindu (Mumbai, India). 17 February 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
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  37. ^ http://tribune.com.pk/story/312794/what-does-pakistan-want-in-afghanistan-3/
  38. ^ "What Iran and Pakistan Want from the Afghans: Water". Time. 2 December 2012. 
  39. ^ http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2012/05/20/iran-pakistan-out-weaken-afghanistan-mps-told
  40. ^ "Ahmad Shah Masoud". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 December 2012. Masoud, an ethnic Tajik, studied engineering before the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and then moved to Pakistan for military training. 
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  44. ^ a b Gall, Carlotta (15 February 2006). "Afghan Suicide Bombings, Tied to Taliban, Point to Pakistan". The New York Times. 
  45. ^ Joscelyn, Thomas (22 September 2011). "Admiral Mullen: Pakistani ISI sponsoring Haqqani attacks". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 1 December 2011. During a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing today, Admiral Michael Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, highlighted the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence Agency's role in sponsoring the Haqqani Network – including attacks on American forces in Afghanistan. "The fact remains that the Quetta Shura [Taliban] and the Haqqani Network operate from Pakistan with impunity," Mullen said in his written testimony. "Extremist organizations serving as proxies of the government of Pakistan are attacking Afghan troops and civilians as well as US soldiers." Mullen continued: "For example, we believe the Haqqani Network—which has long enjoyed the support and protection of the Pakistani government and is, in many ways, a strategic arm of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Agency—is responsible for the September 13th attacks against the U.S. Embassy in Kabul." 
  46. ^ King, Laura (23 September 2011). "Protests break out at Afghanistan peace negotiator's funeral".  
  47. ^ Amrullah Saleh on the BBC's Hardtalk. BBC. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  48. ^ 'Pakistanophobia' Grips France, Fox News Channel
  49. ^ Werbner, Pnina (2005). "Pakistani migration and diaspora religious politics in a global age". In Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian. Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures around the World. New York: Springer. p. 475.  
  50. ^ Rajni Bhatia (11 June 2007). "After the N-word, the P-word" "After the N-word, the P-word". BBC News. Retrieved 1 January 2012. Its first recorded use was in 1964, when hostility in Britain to immigration from its former colonies in the Asian sub-continent, was beginning to find a voice. 
  51. ^ BBC News – Pakistan blocks BBC World News TV channel. BBC.co.uk (30 November 2011). Retrieved 31 December 2011.
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