World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Antipope Clement VII

Article Id: WHEBN0030876488
Reproduction Date:

Title: Antipope Clement VII  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Papal conclave, 1378, Antipope, Pope Boniface IX, Pope Urban VI, Antipope Alexander V
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Antipope Clement VII

Antipope
Clement VII
Diocese Avignon, France
Elected 20 September 1378
Papacy ended 16 September 1394
Successor Antipope Benedict XIII
Opposed to Pope Urban VI
Pope Boniface IX
Other posts Count of Geneva
Orders
Created Cardinal 30 May 1371
Rank Cardinal
Personal details
Birth name Robert of Geneva
Born 1342
chateau d'Annecy
Died Did not recognize date. Try slightly modifying the date in the first parameter. (aged 52)
Avignon
Occupation Archbishop of Cambrai
Coat of arms }
Other popes and antipopes named Clement

Robert of Geneva (1342 – 16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy as (Anti-)Pope Clement VII by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, and was the first antipope of the Avignon papacy.

Biography

He was the son of Amadeus III, Count of Geneva, and was born in chateau d'Annecy in 1342.[1] He became Bishop of Thérouanne in 1361, Archbishop of Cambrai in 1368, and a cardinal on 30 May 1371.[2]

In 1377, while serving as papal legate in upper Italy (1376–78), in order to put down a rebellion in the Papal States, known as the War of the Eight Saints, he personally commanded troops lent to the papacy by the condottiere John Hawkwood to reduce the small city of Cesena in the territory of Forlì, which resisted being added to the Patrimony of Peter for the second time in a generation; there he authorized the massacre of 3,000 - 8,000 civilians, an atrocity even by the rules of war at the time, which earned him the nickname butcher of Cesena.[3]

Papal election

Elected pope at Fondi on 20 September 1378 by the French cardinals in opposition to Urban VI,[4] he was the first antipope of the Western Schism, the second of the two periods referred to as the Great Schism, which lasted until 1417.[5] Burgundy,[6] France, Naples, Scotland and Savoy acknowledged his authority.[7] Unable to maintain himself in Italy, he took up his residence at Avignon in the southern French Comtat Venaissin, where he became dependent on the French court. He created excellent cardinals but donated the larger part of the Pontifical States to Louis II of Anjou, resorted to simony and extortion to meet the financial needs of his court, and seems never to have sincerely desired the termination of the schism.

He died at Avignon on 16 September 1394.

Eventually it was determined that he would be recorded as an antipope rather than as a pope. Uncertainty over who the legitimate pope might be during the time of the Western Schism gave rise to the legal theory called Conciliarism, which claimed that a general council of the church was superior to the pope and could therefore judge between rival claimants.

Notes

  1. ^ Bernard Guenée, Between Church and State: The Lives of Four French Prelates in the Late , transl. Arthur Goldhammer, (The University of Chicago Press, 1991), 113.
  2. ^ Bernard Guenée, Between Church and State: The Lives of Four French Prelates in the Late Middle Ages, 113.
  3. ^ David Murphy, Condottiere 1300-1500: Infamous Medieval Mercenaries, (Osprey Publishing, 2007), 46-47.
  4. ^ Seeking Legitimacy:Art and Manuscripts for the Popes in Avignon from 1378 to 1417, Cathleen A. Fleck, A Companion to the Great Western Schism (1378-1417), ed. Joëlle Rollo-Koster, Thomas M. Izbicki, (Brill, 2009), 241.
  5. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 1997), 248.
  6. ^ John-Peter Pham, Heirs of the Fisherman:Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession, (Oxford University Press, 2004), 74.
  7. ^ George L. Williams, Papal Genealogy:The Families and Descendants of the Popes, (McFarland & Company Inc., 1998), 45.

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.