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Arab Brazilian

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Title: Arab Brazilian  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Syrian Brazilian, Palestinian Brazilian, Arab Argentine, Arab diaspora, Asian Brazilian
Collection: Arab Brazilian, Arab Diaspora in South America, Brazilian People of Arab Descent, Ethnic Groups in Brazil
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Arab Brazilian

Arab Brazilian



Total population
The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent.[1][2] Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent.[3] According to a research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East[4]
Regions with significant populations
São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Goiás, Rio Grande do Sul
Languages
Portuguese, Arabic
Religion
Predominantly Christian
with Muslim minority
Related ethnic groups
Other Arabs, Arab American, Arab Canadian, Lebanese Canadian, Lebanese Australian, Arab Argentine, Portuguese Brazilians

An Arab Brazilian is a Brazilian citizen of Arab ethnic and/or linguistic heritage or identity. The majority of Arab Brazilians trace their origin to the Levantine lands of the Arab World, known in Arabic as Bilad al-Sham, primarily Lebanon and Syria.

Contents

  • Immigration to Brazil 1
  • Arabic influence in Brazil 2
  • Statistics 3
  • Notable Arab Brazilians 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6

Immigration to Brazil

Immigration of Arabs to Brazil started in the late 19th century, most of them coming from Lebanon and Syria, later from other parts of the Arab world. When they were first processed in the ports of Brazil, they were counted as Turks because they carried passports issued by the Turkish Ottoman Empire that ruled the present day territories of Lebanon and Syria.[5] There were many causes for Arabs to leave their homelands in the Ottoman Empire; overpopulation in Lebanon, conscription in Lebanon and Syria, and religious persecution by the Ottoman Turks. Arab immigration to Brazil grew also after WWI and the rest of the 20th century, and concentrated in the states of São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goiás, and Rio de Janeiro.

Most Arab immigrants in Brazil were Christians, Muslims being a minority. Intermarriage between Brazilians of Arab descent and other Brazilians, regardless of ethnicity or religious affiliation, is very high; most Brazilians of Arab descent only have one parent of Arab origin. As a result of this, the new generations of Brazilians of Arab descent show marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Portuguese as a first language.

The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent.[6][7] Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent.[8] According to a research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East[4]

Arabic influence in Brazil

Beirute, an Arab-Brazilian sandwich [4].

Arab immigration has influenced many aspects of Brazil's culture - besides and beyond the Arabic influence inherited via Portugal, as, for instance, some Portuguese words of Arabic origin.

In the main Brazilian cities it is easy to find restaurants that cook Arab food; and Arab dishes, such as sfihas (Portuguese esfirra), tabbouleh (Portuguese tabule), kibbeh (Portuguese quibe), hummus, tahina and halwa are very well known among Brazilians.

Most Arab immigrants in Brazil have worked as traders, roaming the vast country to sell textiles and clothes and open new markets. This economic history can be seen today in the ways that the São Paulo-based Arab Brazilian Chamber of Commerce has gained greater recognition in increasing Brazilian exports to the Arab world.[9]

Arab-Brazilians are well integrated into Brazilian society. Today, only a minority of Arab Brazilians still know and speak the Arabic language, the vast majority of them being monolingual Portuguese speakers.

Many important Brazilians are of Arab descent, including important politicians such as Paulo Maluf, Geraldo Alckmin, Gilberto Kassab, Michel Temer (current Vice-President) and José Maria Alkmin, artists, writers (for instance Raduan Nassar) and models.

Statistics

Notable Arab Brazilians

See also

References

  1. ^ Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affaires
  2. ^ [5]
  3. ^ Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affaires
  4. ^ a b IBGE. IBGE: Características Étnico-Raciais da População.
  5. ^ Recopilaron casi 200 años de los sirio libaneses en Argentina
  6. ^ Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affaires
  7. ^ [6]
  8. ^ Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affaires
  9. ^ Karam, John Tofik. 2007. Another Arabesque: Syrian-Lebanese Ethnicity in Neoliberal Brazil. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
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