Art-name

Pseudonym
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaning "mark"
Hanyu Pinyin hào
Wade–Giles hao
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization ho
McCune–Reischauer ho
Japanese name
Kana ごう (modern usage)
がう (historical usage)
Kyūjitai
Shinjitai
Romanization

A pseudonym or pen name, also known by its native names hao (in China) and (in Japan) and ho (in Korea), is a professional name used by East Asian artists. The word and the concept originated in China, then became popular in other East Asian countries (especially Japan and Korea).

In some cases, artists adopted different pseudonyms at different stages of their career, usually to mark significant changes in their life. Extreme practitioners of this tendency were Tang Yin of the Ming Dynasty, who had more than ten hao and Hokusai of Japan, who in the period 1798 to 1806 alone used no fewer than six.

History

In early modern Japan, a woodblock print artist's first was usually given to them by the head of the school (a group of artists and apprentices, with a senior as master of the school) in which they initially studied; this usually included one of the characters of the master's . For example, one of Hokusai's earliest pseudonyms was Shunrō; his master Katsukawa Shunshō having granted him the character 'shun' from his own name.

One can often trace the relationship among artists with this, especially in later years, when it seems to have been fairly (although not uniformly) systematic (particularly in the Utagawa school) that the first character of the pupil's was the last of the master's .

Thus, an artist named Toyoharu had a student named Toyohiro, who, in turn, had as a pupil the famous landscape artist Hiroshige.

Another figure who studied under Toyoharu was the principal head of the Utagawa school, Toyokuni. Toyokuni had pupils named Kunisada and Kuniyoshi. Kuniyoshi, in turn, had as a student Yoshitoshi, whose pupils included Toshikata.

Reused names

In some schools, in particular the main Utagawa school, the of the most senior member was adopted when the master died and the chief pupil assumed his position. Perhaps as a sign of respect, artists might take the of a previous artist. This makes attribution difficult. The censors' seal helps determine a particular print's date. Style also is significant. For example, Kunisada, once he changed his to Toyokuni, initiated the practice of signing prints with a signature in the elongated oval toshidama ('New Year's Jewel') seal of the Utagawa school, an unusual cartouche with the zig-zag in the upper right-hand corner. His successors continued this practice.

In modern scholarship on the subject, a Roman numeral identifies an artist in the sequence of

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