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Arthur Lee (musician)

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Title: Arthur Lee (musician)  
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Subject: Forever Changes, False Start (album), Four Sail, Vindicator (album), Reel to Real (album)
Collection: 1945 Births, 2006 Deaths, 20Th-Century American Singers, African-American Musicians, African-American Rock Musicians, American Composers, American Male Singers, American Male Singer-Songwriters, American Male Songwriters, American Multi-Instrumentalists, American Rock Guitarists, American Rock Singers, American Rock Singer-Songwriters, American Rock Songwriters, American Singer-Songwriters, American Songwriters, Burials at Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Hollywood Hills), Cancer Deaths in Tennessee, Deaths from Leukemia, Love (Band) Members, Musicians from Memphis, Tennessee, People from Memphis, Tennessee, Protopunk Musicians
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Arthur Lee (musician)

Arthur Lee
Arthur Lee on November 5, 1977. Photograph taken by Ed Perlstein.
Background information
Birth name Arthur Taylor
Also known as Arthur Taylor Lee
Born March 7, 1945
Memphis, Tennessee, United States
Died August 3, 2006(2006-08-03) (aged 61)
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Genres Psychedelic rock, folk rock
Occupation(s) Musician, songwriter, producer
Instruments Vocals, guitar, harmonica, drums, percussion, congas
Years active 1963–2006
Associated acts Love

Arthur Taylor Lee (born Arthur Taylor; March 7, 1945 – August 3, 2006) was an American musician and singer, known as the frontman, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist of the Los Angeles rock band Love, best known for their critically acclaimed 1967 album, Forever Changes.


  • Early years 1
  • Pre-Love 2
  • Love 3
  • Solo career 4
  • Prison 5
  • Final years 6
  • Legacy 7
  • Discography 8
    • With Love 8.1
    • Solo albums 8.2
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Early years

Lee was born Arthur Taylor[1] in Memphis, Tennessee, the son of Chester Taylor, a jazz cornet player, and Agnes Taylor, a school teacher. He and his mother moved to Los Angeles when he was five. In 1953 his mother married Clinton Lee, who adopted Arthur and legally changed his name to Arthur Taylor Lee.

Arthur spent his childhood and teenage years in the now historic West Adams District. He attended Dorsey High School, where he excelled in basketball, and held the record for most points scored in a single game. During his high school years he teamed up with family friend Johnny Echols (also originally from Tennessee) and formed various musical groups.


His first known recording is from 1963. The Ninth Wave was released by his first band, the instrumental outfit called The LAGs, a Booker T & The MG's type of unit which included Johnny Echols (future co-founder, guitarist and vocalist of Love), Lee (organ), Allan Talbert (saxophone) and Roland Davis (drums).

As a songwriter, Lee composed the surf songs "White Caps" and "Ski Surfin' Sanctuary". "My Diary" is the first Lee composition that came near to being a hit. It was written when Arthur was a teenager, about his teenage sweetheart Anita Billings. Later it was the R&B singer Rosa Lee Brooks who performed and recorded it. This recording included Jimi Hendrix on electric guitar. Lee had seen Hendrix backing up the Isley Brothers.

Lee wrote "I've Been Tryin'" for Little Ray. "Luci Baines", a song about President Lyndon Johnson's daughter, was performed and recorded with Lee's new band, The American Four. He composed "Everybody Jerk" and "Slow Jerk" for Ronnie and the Pomona Casuals, a band that put out an LP on the Donna label featuring some vocals by Lee.

These early recordings are very rare but have been collected on a 1997 bootleg CD. The American Four however have since been reissued as a 45 and are also available now on iTunes.


Lee said when he first heard The Byrds he felt vindicated since he'd already been writing music that had a similar folk rock sound. In 1965 the Grass Roots, his folk rock unit, changed their name to Love because there was already a signed act called The Grass Roots. Several other names were considered including Bryan MacLean's choice of Summer's Children as well as others, such as the Asylum Choir, Dr Strangelove, Poetic Justice and the Love. The name Love was chosen after a club audience voted it the best choice. According to Barney Hoskyns' 2001 book Arthur Lee: Alone Again Or, Manson Family member and sometime Grass Roots guitarist Bobby Beausoleil claimed that Arthur had named the band Love in honor of one of Beausoleil's nicknames, Cupid.

Lee's early appearances were at clubs in Hollywood. He played them all including the Brave New World, Hullabaloo, Bido Lito's and the Sea Witch. At Bido Lito's, a tiny hole-in-the-wall club located on a cul-de-sac known as Cosmo's Alley, Lee first showed he had superstar potential. The Bido Lito's audience was sometimes dotted with celebrities, including actor Sal Mineo, and rock stars Mick Jagger, Brian Jones, Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix, who would go on to collaborate with Lee on future recording projects. Lee then got the opportunity to play the larger Whisky a Go-Go on Los Angeles' Sunset Strip, after which Love received a recording contract by Elektra Records.

Love's music has been described as a mixture of folk-rock, psychedelic rock, baroque pop, Spanish-tinged pop, R&B, garage rock, and even protopunk. Lee has been regarded as "the first punk rocker" but wasn't flattered by the phrase as he thought the term punk meant "being somebody's bitch or something like that."[2] Though Lee's vocals have garnered some comparisons to Johnny Mathis, his lyrics often dwell on matters dark and vexing, but often with a wry humor. The group's cover of the Burt Bacharach/Hal David composition "My Little Red Book" (first recorded by Manfred Mann for the soundtrack of What's New, Pussycat?) received a thumbs-down from Bacharach: Love had altered the former Marlene Dietrich bandleader's chord changes. Nonetheless the record was a Southern California hit and won Lee and Love a spot on American Bandstand.

Love (1966) included their cover of "My Little Red Book". "Emotion", an instrumental track from the album, is used in the opening credits of the 1969 movie Medium Cool. Side two of Da Capo (1966) featured just one song, "Revelation". The first side contained six individual songs, including their only single to achieve any success in the Billboard Top 40 chart: "7 and 7 Is". Forever Changes (1967) followed, the album a centerpiece of the group's psychedelic-tinged sound, bolstered by David Angel's arrangements.

Love released three albums with core members Lee, Echols (lead guitar, vocals), Bryan MacLean (guitar, vocals) and Ken Forssi (bass). The drum chair revolved between Alban "Snoopy" Pfisterer (Love, "7 and 7 Is") and Michael Stuart (all tracks on Da Capo except "7 and 7 Is", Forever Changes). Pfisterer reportedly found the demanding drum parts on "7 and 7 Is" so exhausting that he and Arthur Lee alternated takes. Da Capo also included Tjay Cantrelli, who was added on saxophone and flute while Pfisterer was moved to organ and harpsichord. Both were out of the group by the time Forever Changes was recorded.

Forever Changes is regarded by critics and fans alike as Love's finest recording, and one of the best rock records of not just the 1960s but of all time. Despite this acclaim, the LP sold moderately in its time (reaching #154 on the Top 200 albums, and stayed on the charts for 10 weeks, without the benefit of a hit single), although it reached the top 30 in the UK. Nonetheless, its cult status grew. In 2003, Rolling Stone magazine ranked Forever Changes 40th in its list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.[3] The album was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2008. It was entered into the National Recording Registry in May 2012.[4] Forever Changes is regarded by many music critics around the world as one of the greatest rock albums of all time.

After Forever Changes, the band managed to record one more non-album single ("Your Mind and We Belong Together" b/w "Laughing Stock") which was released in June 1968 and failed to chart. Love then dissolved due to drug and money issues, only to have Lee revive the group name shortly thereafter. The new Love featured a lineup consisting of Lee on vocals and guitar, Jay Donnellan on guitar, Frank Fayad on bass, and George Suranovich on drums despite a few tracks featuring The Crazy World of Arthur Brown drummer Drachen Theaker. Lee signed a record deal with Bob Krasnow's Blue Thumb label during this time, but without mentioning to Krasnow that he was technically still signed to Elektra Records. Lee had wanted out of his Elektra deal since 1966 (the year the self-titled debut was released). Elektra founder Jac Holzman did not want to let Lee out of his contract because he admired his talents so much, but he also did not want to keep an artist who did not want to be kept, so a deal was worked out that allowed Lee to record for Blue Thumb with Holzman getting his choice of ten of the resulting songs to fulfill the Elektra contract of a fourth album. That album would become Four Sail (1969), Lee's pun on his original title "For Sale". A mere three months after the release of Four Sail, Blue Thumb records released their Love album titled Out Here using remaining tracks from the sessions.

Out Here featured the same musicians as Four Sail except guitarist Jay Donnellan who was replaced with Gary Rowles. Lee felt that Donnellan was getting a little too egotistical for his tastes. The new lineup consisted of musicians who were not fans of Forever Changes, resulting in a harder-edged rock sound. During the initial Four Sail/Out Here sessions, Krasnow approached Lee about the possibility of rounding up the original members of Love. Krasnow felt there was some magic missing with the new line up. Lee obliged him, and started rehearsing and even recording some with original members Echols, Forssi, and Stuart (MacLean had turned him down). Heroin proved to be too dominant in the lives of Echols and Forssi. Both men were constantly pawning off the rented equipment for drug money and were eventually let go yet again. Love also toured both Four Sail and Out Here for their first trip to Europe, where they were always more popular, and went on to do a nationally televised performance on Dutch television which also featured promotional videos for older songs from the Elektra years. Out Here managed to chart at #29 in the UK in May 1970.

The next album to appear from Love was False Start (1970) which continued on with the heavier sonic direction of acid rock, in addition to featuring elements of classic R&B. One new member was added to this incarnation of Love, a vocalist/guitarist named Nooney Rickett. The most notable aspect of this album remains the fact that the opening track (titled The Everlasting First") features Jimi Hendrix on guitar. Apparently Arthur ran into Jimi while in England, and they decided to record on Bob Krasnow's dime. For years there were rumors that Arthur and Jimi recorded an entire record together, but the truth surfaced in 2009 when an acetate from Blue Thumb made rounds and it was revealed that there was only a long jam session (titled Jam on the actual acetate, to accompany The Everlasting First and an early version of the Hendrix song "Ezy Rider"). According to legend, Arthur overheard Bob Krasnow telling someone that if the False Start album did not crack the top 10 he was going to release the band from its contract. Moreover, Arthur made Krasnow give him that in writing. The album did not even reach the top 200 on the Billboard charts.

In 1971, Lee was signed to Columbia Records and spent the better part of the summer recording; all of the songs were deemed unworthy of issue (the entire Columbia project, along with a handful of demos, was released for the first time in 2009 on Sundazed as "Love Lost").

Solo career

In July 1972, Lee released his first solo album, Vindicator, on A&M Records, featuring a new group of musicians also playing as the band Love. At one point in time they would use the name Bandaid, a name originally suggested by Jimi Hendrix for a briefly considered lineup of himself, Lee, and Steve Winwood. This album failed to chart. Lee recorded a second solo album in 1973 entitled Black Beauty for Buffalo Records, but the label folded before the album was released. Lee contributed the title track to the 1974 blaxploitation film Thomasine & Bushrod.

Lee's next move was to credit the backing group for Black Beauty with the addition of guitarist John Sterling as a new Love for Reel to Real (1974). Once again, the album went nearly unnoticed.

A new Lee solo album, called just Arthur Lee, appeared on

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, there were various attempts to reunite the original Love lineup. At the suggestion of guitarist John Sterling who first joined Arthur for Reel To Real, one such show from the Whisky in Oct. 1978 was recorded by Sterling on cassette. It featuring Lee and Bryan MacLean with Sterling on guitar, George Suranovich on drums and Kim Kesterson on bass, and was released on Rhino as a live album picture disc entitled Love Live (1980) on Rhino Records. In 1982, MCA released Studio/Live, which was a collection of tracks from the early 1970s incarnation of Love coordinated by rock lawyer/journalist Stann Findelle, including never before heard tracks recorded from Bill Graham's Fillmore East.

Apart from the Studio/Live package on MCA, the 1980s were a mostly fallow period for Lee. According to him: "I was gone for a decade. I went back to my old neighborhood to take care of my father, who was dying of cancer. I was tired of signing autographs. I was tired of being BS'd out of my money...I just got tired." Alice Cooper did record a cover version of Lee's "7 and 7 Is" on a 1981 album, Special Forces.

Lee did not re-emerge until 1992, with a new album entitled Arthur Lee & Love -{Five String Serenade} on the French New Rose label. The title track, "Five String Serenade", was later recorded by Mazzy Star and Jack White of The White Stripes. The album also featured a new artist he discovered from San Francisco, Keith Farrish aka Demian X Diamond. Lee also performed live around this time in Paris, London and Liverpool with Mick and John Head of legendary Liverpool bands Shack and The Pale Fountains.

In 1993 he played shows in New York and England. The following year he released a 45rpm single, "Girl on Fire", backed with "Midnight Sun" – on Distortions Records. He began to tour regularly with a backup band comprising former members of Das Damen, and LA group Baby Lemonade.

In 1995, Rhino Records released the compilation Love Story, a two-disc set with extensive liner notes which chronicled the period 1966–1972, and reignited interest in the band. In fact, the original Love planned to reform and tour in promotion of the compilation, but Arthur's legal troubles got in the way.


In the autumn of 1996, Arthur Lee was sentenced to 12 years for illegal negligent discharge of a firearm. California's three strikes law meant Lee was forced to serve a prison term, having previously been convicted on "a couple of assault and drug charges" in the 1980s. While in prison Lee refused visitors and interviews. Former bandmates Bryan MacLean and Ken Forssi both died while Lee was incarcerated, ending any speculation as to a full-fledged Love reunion.

One bright spot for Lee was the inclusion of two Love tracks, "My Little Red Book" (from Love) and "Always See Your Face" (from Four Sail), on the soundtrack of John Cusack's adaptation of Nick Hornby's High Fidelity. (Lee's songs have been heard in other films as well, notably "7 & 7 Is" in both 1990's Point Break and 1996's Bottle Rocket).

On December 12, 2001, Lee was released from prison, having served 5½ years of his original sentence. A federal appeals court in California reversed the charge of negligent discharge of a firearm, as it found that the prosecutor at Lee's trial was guilty of misconduct. After Lee was freed, he put together a new incarnation of Love and planned a Forever Changes 35th Anniversary Tour, to kick off at the Royal Festival Hall in London.

The Make-Up released a song calling for Arthur Lee's release, called "Free Arthur Lee".

Final years

In 2002, Arthur Lee began touring in earnest under the name "Love with Arthur Lee". This new phase of his career met with great success, and he performed to enthusiastic audiences and critical acclaim throughout Europe, North America and Australia. This incarnation of Love was composed of the members of the band Baby Lemonade, who had first performed with Lee in May 1993 at Raji's. The band began performing the Forever Changes album in its entirety, often with a string and horn section. A live CD and DVD of this material was released in 2003.

Nils Lofgren performing at the Beacon Theatre Benefit For Arthur Lee, June 23, 2006

Johnny Echols joined the new group for a special Forever Changes 35th Anniversary Tour performance at Royce Hall, UCLA, in the spring of 2003. Lee and the band continued to tour throughout 2003 and 2004, including many concerts in and around hometown Los Angeles, notably a show at the outdoor Sunset Junction festival, the San Diego Street Scene, and a headlining date with The Zombies at the Ebell Theatre. Echols occasionally joined Lee and the group on the continuing and final tours of 2004 to 2005. They also played a well received date at the Fillmore in San Francisco with the full string and horn section.

Because of Arthur Lee's illness (acute myeloid leukemia), the details of which were not known by the band at the time, he could not participate in the final tour in July 2005. Since no one knew of his illness, Arthur's decision to forgo the final tour was met with angry, confused reactions. The remaining members of the band, along with Echols, continued to perform at the venues of the last tour (July 2005) without Lee, under the name The Love Band.

At the end of September 2005 Lee moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where he planned to continue to make music and continue the name Love. Joining him was to be drummer Greg Roberson (Reigning Sound, Her Majesty's Buzz, Compulsive Gamblers) to put together a new lineup in Memphis, which was to include Adam Woodard, Alex Greene (The Reigning Sound, Big Ass Truck), Jack "Oblivian" Yarber, Alicja Trout, and Johnny Echols from the original Love line-up. Ultimately Arthur's ill health prevented this from happening.

In April 2006 it was publicly announced that Lee was being treated for acute myeloid leukemia. A tribute fund was set up shortly after the announcement, with a series of benefit concerts to be performed to help pay medical bills. The most notable of these concerts was produced by Steve Weitzman of SW Productions at New York's Beacon Theater on June 23, 2006, and featured Robert Plant, Ian Hunter, Ryan Adams, Nils Lofgren, Yo La Tengo, Garland Jeffreys, Johnny Echols (Love's original lead guitarist) and Flashy Python & The Body Snatchers (featuring Alec Ounsworth of Clap Your Hands Say Yeah). Backed by Ian Hunter's band, Plant performed 12 songs, including five Led Zeppelin songs and five recorded by Love in the 60s ("7 and 7 Is", "A House Is Not A Motel", "Bummer in the Summer", "Old Man" and "Hey Joe").[5] A benefit concert was held in far off Dublin, Ireland.[6]

Lee underwent several months of aggressive treatment, which included three bouts of chemotherapy, followed by a stem cell transplant on May 25, 2006 using stem cells from an umbilical cord blood donor; Lee was the first adult patient in Tennessee to receive this treatment. His condition worsened, however, and he died on August 3, 2006, at Methodist University Hospital in Memphis, with his wife Diane at his side.

In an obituary of Lee in early 2007, Kandia Crazy Horse of Vibe Magazine wrote that Forever Changes was "his psychedelic masterpiece ... an exhilarating mash-up of West Side freak folk with East Side mariachi and blues. Lee out-jangles his heroes the Byrds on the immortal 'Alone Again Or' and aims his symphonic trigger dead at the Beatles on his greatest work, 'You Set the Scene.' In total, a glorious song cycle exploring the dark side of hippiedom."


Since Lee's death, a number of Arthur Lee websites have appeared. Moreover, Lee was memorialized by both fans and friends. The most notable of these memorials was written by Stuart Goldman,[7] who had known and written about Lee ever since his early days on the Sunset Strip.

In Lee's absence, many more recent artists such as Nicole Atkins,[8] Golden Animals, Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, The Dears, Siddhartha, Names and Faces, The Mystreated, The Brian Jonestown Massacre, Apollo Heights, Stuart Murdoch of Belle & Sebastian,[9] Yo La Tengo and MGMT[10] cite his music as a major influence.

Robyn Hitchcock's 1993 song "The Wreck of the Arthur Lee" was written as a tribute to the singer.[11]

Arthur Lee is mentioned in the song "Are You Ready to Be Heartbroken", by Lloyd Cole & the Commotions.

Arthur Lee is mentioned in the song "Mate of the Bloke", by Half Man Half Biscuit; Lee's name and mystique are contrasted humorously with English comic actor Arthur Lowe.

His prison term is the subject of The Prison's Going Down by ex-Stranglers singer and guitarist Hugh Cornwell.

Arthur Lee is the subject of the song "Byrds Turn to Stone" (originally titled "Mr Lee") by Liverpool band (and former Arthur Lee backing group) Shack.

Rival Schools and Quicksand frontman Walter Schreifels paid tribute to Arthur Lee on his 2010 solo album An Open Letter to the Scene with a track titled "Arthur Lee's Lullaby".

In June 2010 the biography Forever Changes: Arthur Lee and the Book of Love by John Einarson, with extracts from Arthur Lee's own memoirs, was released by Jawbone Press.

The 2009 Communion album by the Swedish band The Soundtrack of Our Lives features a song entitled "The Fan Who Wasn't There" which was based on a conversation singer Ebbot Lundberg had with Arthur Lee.[12] On May 25, 2013 at The Casbah in San Diego, California, Ebbot Lundbergh performed vocals on several Love songs alongside the band Love Revisited which consisted of original Love members Johnny Echols and Michael Stuart-Ware and the Los Angeles group Baby Lemonade.[13]


With Love

  • Love (1966)
  • Da Capo (1966)
  • Forever Changes (1967)
  • Four Sail (1969)
  • Out Here (1969)
  • Love Revisited (1970)
  • False Start (1970)
  • Dear You (the possible title for the unreleased Columbia recordings, issued in 2009 as "Love Lost") (1971)
  • Reel to Real (1974)
  • The Best of Love (1980, reissued in 2003)
  • Love Live (1980)
  • Studio/Live (1982)
  • Arthur Lee & Love – Five String Serenade (1992)
  • Love Story (1995)
  • The Forever Changes Concert (2003)
  • Love Live CD Friday Music (2008)
  • Love Lost (2009; recorded in 1971, see above)

Solo albums

  • Vindicator (1972)
  • Black Beauty (1973) released early fall 2011 High Moon Records
  • Arthur Lee EP (1977)
  • Arthur Lee (1981)
  • Arthur Lee Live in Liverpool with Shack (Viper Records 2000)


  1. ^  
  2. ^ Einarson, John (2010). Forever Changes: Arthur Lee and the Book of Love. Jawbone Press. p. 241.  
  3. ^ "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone (Special Issue). 40 | Forever Changes – Love. November 2003. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Love, Dead in National Recording Registry". Retrieved May 23, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Arthur Lee (1945–2006)". Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Other Arthur Benefit Concerts Throughout The Daily Planet-Dublin". May 16. 2006 (or so). Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Requiem for a Heavyweight". Archived from the original on August 13, 2007. 
  8. ^ "Nicole Atkins interview with Ken Levine". October 18, 2011. 
  9. ^ "NPR's Fresh Air with Terry Gross interview from March 6, 2006". 
  10. ^ "MGMT – Test a Andrew VanWyngarden". Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  11. ^ "See post-song banter". Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  12. ^ "The Soundtrack of Our Lives: All Time Is One Time". L.A. Record. Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  13. ^ [2]

External links

  • Arthur Lee at AllMusic
  • Official Arthur Lee Web site
  • Torben's Love Page
  • The Love Society
  • Death as reported on official band webform (no obituary available yet)
  • Arthur Lee dead at 61 on
  • Arthur Lee article at BBC News
  • In-depth biographical obituary about Lee and his cultural importance*Profile of Arthur Lee at Find A Grave
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