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Astarabad

 

Astarabad

For other places with the same name, see Gorgan (disambiguation).
"Astarabad" redirects here. For other uses, see Astarabad (disambiguation).
Gorgan
گرگان
Gorgan
Gorgan

Coordinates: 36°50′19″N 54°26′05″E / 36.83861°N 54.43472°E / 36.83861; 54.43472Coordinates: 36°50′19″N 54°26′05″E / 36.83861°N 54.43472°E / 36.83861; 54.43472

Country  Iran
Province Golestan
County Gorgan
Bakhsh Central
Government
 • Governor of Gorgan Jaafar Gorzin
Area
 • Total 1,700 km2 (656 sq mi)
Elevation 1,350 m (4,430 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 269,226
 • Density 160/km2 (410/sq mi)
Time zone IRST (UTC+03:30)
 • Summer (DST) IDST (UTC+04:30)
GEOnet Names Server

Gorgan

Some 150 km (93 mi) east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park. The city has a regional airport and several universities. Gorgan Airport was opened in September 2005.

Etymology

The city was named Hyrcania, Hyrcani or Hyrcana in ancient Greek records, which comes from Pahlavi Varkâna -- "Land of the Wolves". Although modern Gorgan is only a city and county (sharing the same name), ancient Hyrcania was the name of a greater region on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (encompassing all of the present day Golestan province, as well as some eastern parts of the Mazandaran province, and some southern parts of the present day Republic of Turkmenistan). In modern times and until 1937 the city used to be known as Astarabad.

Geography and climate

The wide Dasht-e Gorgan (Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about 1,700 square kilometres (660 sq mi).

In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is 18.2 °C (64.8 °F) and the annual rainfall is 600 millimetres (24 in).

Climate data for Gorgan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29
(84)
32.4
(90.3)
35
(95)
39
(102)
43
(109)
45
(113)
44
(111)
44
(111)
41.6
(106.9)
39
(102)
36
(97)
29.2
(84.6)
45
(113)
Average high °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
13.1
(55.6)
15.3
(59.5)
21.2
(70.2)
26.9
(80.4)
30.9
(87.6)
32.6
(90.7)
32.7
(90.9)
29.9
(85.8)
24.8
(76.6)
18.8
(65.8)
14.3
(57.7)
22.74
(72.93)
Average low °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
3.8
(38.8)
6.1
(43)
10.7
(51.3)
15.5
(59.9)
19.9
(67.8)
22.8
(73)
22.9
(73.2)
19.6
(67.3)
13.9
(57)
8.9
(48)
5.2
(41.4)
12.73
(54.9)
Record low °C (°F) −10
(14)
−6
(21)
−3.2
(26.2)
0
(32)
2.8
(37)
10
(50)
15
(59)
13
(55)
9
(48)
3
(37)
−2
(28)
−7
(19)
−10
(14)
Precipitation mm (inches) 55.0
(2.165)
55.8
(2.197)
79.4
(3.126)
52.8
(2.079)
44.1
(1.736)
33.4
(1.315)
22.2
(0.874)
27.3
(1.075)
38.9
(1.531)
66.1
(2.602)
68.5
(2.697)
57.5
(2.264)
601
(23.661)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7.4 8.0 10.5 8.0 6.1 4.2 3.7 4.2 5.2 5.7 6.7 6.8 76.5
 % humidity 73 73 74 72 67 64 65 68 69 70 73 74 70.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 135.3 128.1 132.3 164.6 207.6 220.4 221.9 220.5 196.3 196.4 151.1 132.8 2,107.3
Source: Synoptic Stations Statistics

History

Main article: Hyrcania


The name Hyrcania is the ancient Greek equivalent of the local name in Old Persian, Varkâna. The Sanskrit word for "wolf", Vŗka (वृक) may be a cognate. The capital of Hyrcania was Zadracarta, the largest city and site of the "royal palace" of Hyrcania, probably located at the great mound of Qalʿa-ye Ḵandān, on the western fringe of present-day Gorgān city.[3] At the time of the Sassanids, Gorgan appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province.[4]

Hyrcania became part of the Persian empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) - the first emperor of the first Persian imperial dynasty, the Achaemenids - or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC). It maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by Arabs in 8th century and by Mongols in the 13th century.

Culture

Gorgan (as well as the whole Golestan province) has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, made by Turkmen. The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, which is now in Uzbekistan. Jajim carpets are also crafted in this province.

Notables people

Entertainment locations

  • Nahar khoran Forest
  • Alangdare Forest
  • Ziarat Village
  • Hezarpych Hill
  • Emadyh School
  • Sorkhankalateh Hill
  • Ismail Shirine Sorkhankalateh
  • Qajar era underground bathroom Srkhnklath

Contemporary figures

  • Mohammad Reza Lotfi, musician.
  • Nader Ebrahimi, author, poet, director, and researcher.
  • Maryam Zandi, photographer.
  • Elaheh Yadegar, Chief of Special and Project Studies, California Department of Transportation, District 7.
  • Abdol Ghayoom Ebrahimi (b. 1932), retired professor of Agricultural & Natural Resources University.
  • Keyan Rafiee, Founder of Human Right Activist in Iran HRA-Iran.org
  • Dr. Hameed Gholam Nezhad, Professor and international energy management consultant

Historical figures

Colleges and universities

Sister cities

References

External links

  • Gorgan Homepage by Tirdad Gorgani

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