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Bartel Leendert van der Waerden

Bartel Leendert van der Waerden
Born (1903-02-02)February 2, 1903
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Died January 12, 1996(1996-01-12) (aged 92)
Zürich, Switzerland
Nationality Dutch
Fields Mathematics
Institutions University of Leipzig
University of Zurich
Alma mater University of Amsterdam
University of Göttingen
Doctoral advisor Hendrik de Vries
Doctoral students David van Dantzig
Herbert Seifert
Known for Van der Waerden notation
Van der Waerden number
Van der Waerden's theorem
Van der Waerden test
Van der Waerden's conjecture

Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (Dutch: ; February 2, 1903 – January 12, 1996) was a Dutch mathematician and historian of mathematics.


  • Biography 1
    • Education and early career 1.1
    • Nazi Germany 1.2
    • Postwar career 1.3
  • Contributions 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • Additional reading 6


Education and early career

Van der Waerden learned advanced mathematics at the University of Amsterdam and the University of Göttingen, from 1919 until 1926. He was much influenced by Emmy Noether at Göttingen, Germany. Amsterdam awarded him a Ph.D. for a thesis on algebraic geometry, supervised by Hendrick de Vries.[1] Göttingen awarded him the habilitation in 1928. In that year, at the age of 25, he accepted a professorship at the University of Groningen.

In his 27th year, van der Waerden published his Moderne Algebra, an influential two-volume treatise on abstract algebra, still cited, and perhaps the first treatise to treat the subject as a comprehensive whole. This work systematized an ample body of research by Emmy Noether, David Hilbert, Richard Dedekind, and Emil Artin. In the following year, 1931, he was appointed professor at the University of Leipzig.

Nazi Germany

During the rise of the Third Reich and through World War II, van der Waerden remained at Leipzig, and passed up opportunities to leave Nazi Germany for Princeton and Utrecht. However, he was critical of the Nazis and refused to give up his Dutch nationality, both of which led to difficulties for him.[2]

Postwar career

Following the war, van der Waerden was repatriated to the Netherlands rather than returning to Leipzig (then under Russian control), but struggled to find a position in the Dutch academic system, in part because his time in Germany made his politics suspect and in part due to Brouwer's opposition to Hilbert's school of mathematics. After a year visiting Johns Hopkins University and two years as a part-time professor, in 1950 van der Waerden filled the chair in mathematics at the University of Amsterdam.[3] In 1951 he moved to the University of Zurich, where he spent the rest of his career, supervising more than 40 Ph.D. students.


Van der Waerden is mainly remembered for his work on abstract algebra. He also wrote on algebraic geometry, topology, number theory, geometry, combinatorics, analysis, probability and statistics, and quantum mechanics (he and Heisenberg had been colleagues at Leipzig). In his later years, he turned to the history of mathematics and science. His historical writings include Ontwakende wetenschap (1950), which was translated into English as Science Awakening (1954), Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations (1983), and A History of Algebra (1985).

Van der Waerden has over 1000 academic descendants, most of them through three of his students, David van Dantzig (Ph.D. Groningen 1931), Herbert Seifert (Ph.D. Leipzig 1932), and Hans Richter (Ph.D. Leipzig 1936, co-advised by Paul Koebe).[4]

See also


  1. ^ Bartel Leendert van der Waerden at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  2. ^ Soifer, pp. 393–417.
  3. ^ Soifer, pp. 418–474.
  4. ^ Bartel Leendert van der Waerden at the Mathematics Genealogy Project


  • Alexander Soifer (2009), The Mathematical Coloring Book, Springer-Verlag ISBN 978-0-387-74640-1. Soifer devotes four chapters and over 100 pages to biographical material about van der Waerden, some of which he had also published earlier in the journal Geombinatorics.

Additional reading

  • Schlote, K.-H., 2005, "Moderne Algebra" in Grattan-Guinness, I., ed., Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. Elsevier: 901–16.
  • .  
  • An interview with van der Waerden, published after his death.
  • Freudenthal, H., 1962, "Science Awakening"Review: B. L. van der Waerden, in Bull. Amer. Math. Soc., 68 (6):543–45.
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