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Political / Social
A baseline is the line from which the seaward limits of a state's territorial sea and certain other maritime zones of jurisdiction are measured. Normally, a sea baseline follows the low-water line of a coastal state. When the coastline is deeply indented, has fringing islands or is highly unstable, straight baselines may be used.
The following methods are used to measure a baseline under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982.
Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State.[note 1]
In the case of islands situated on atolls or of islands having fringing reefs, the baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the seaward low-water line of the reef, as shown by the appropriate symbol on charts officially recognized by the coastal State.[note 2]
European Union, International Seabed Authority, International waters, Guyana, Peru
Baseline (sea), Archipelagic state, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Freedom of the seas, Seasteading
Philippines, United States, United Kingdom, United Nations, Indonesia