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Batara Guru

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Batara Guru

Bathara Guru

Batara Guru (also called Bathara Guru and Debata Batara Guru) is the name of a supreme god in several Indonesian mythologies. His name appears to be derived from Sanskrit Bhattara, which means "noble lord" and Guru, epithet of Bṛhaspati, a Hindu god who is a regent and identified with the planet Jupiter.[1]

Batara Guru in Batak mythology

Batara Guru is one of the Debata na Tolu (trinity gods), that rule Banua Ginjang (upper world, the realm of the gods). He and his brothers - Debata Sori Pada and Debata Mangala Bulan - were born from three eggs hatched by a divine giant hen, Manuk Patia Raja, an avatar of Debata Asi Asi (Shiva). He married a goddess named Siboru Porti Bulan and has two sons (Mula Songta and Mula Songti) and two daughters (Siboru Sorba Jati and Siboru Deak Parujar). Later, Siboru Deak Parujar married Siraja Odap Odap and bore children who became the ancestors of the human beings that inhabit Banua Tonga (middle world, i.e. the Earth).[2]

The omnipotent god Mula Jadi na Bolon gave Batara Guru wisdom, juridical law, royal law, knowledge and the ability to control destiny and the fate of mortals. His realm stretched from Bukit Siunggas to Bukit Parsambilan, and included the seven floored heaven where the sacred tree Hari Ara grows. Batara Guru is depicted wearing a black robe and, on his head, a three colored big boat shaped turban called "Talungkup". He rides a black horse while in his hand he bears a scale called "Gantang Tarajuan". He has a black crow and Nanggar Jati bird. He also has the ability to give human beings life, and to open their ears so that they can distinguish good from bad words (source: Mythology of Batak (Indonesian pages)).

According to the source above, the children of Batara Guru are listed as follows (beyond Dalihan na Tolu law):

  1. Mula Songta married Nan Bauraja, daughter of Debata Sori Pada and Siboru Malimbim
  2. Mula Songti married Narudang Ulubegu, daughter of Debata Sori Pada and Siboru Malimbim
  3. Siboru Sorba Jati married Naga Padoha, son of Debata Mangala Bulan and Siboru Anggarana
  4. Siboru Deak Parujar married Siraja Odap Odap, son of Debata Mangala Bulan and Siboru Anggarana

Batara Guru in Buginese mythology

According to Sureq Galigo, Batara Guru was a god, the son of Sang Patotoqe and Datu Palingeq, who was sent to earth to cultivate it as human being. His divine name was La Togeq Langiq. He had at least ten children from his five concubines, but only one son from his beloved consort, We Nyiliq Timoq. He is the father of Batara Lattuq and grand father of Sawerigading, the main characters in the Buginese mythology story, Sureq Galigo. He is also the father of Sangiang Serri, the goddess of rice and fertility in Buginese mythology.

The children of Batara Guru (according to Sureq Galigo) are:

  1. We Oddang Nriuq (a.k.a Sangiang Serri) by We Saung Nriuq, his concubine
  2. La Pangoriseng by We Leleq Ellung, his concubine
  3. La Temmalureng by We Saung Nriuq
  4. La Temmalolo (twin brother of La Temmalureng) by We Saung Nriuq
  5. La Lumpongeng by Apung Talaga, his concubine
  6. La Pattaungeng by Tenritalunruq, his concubine
  7. We Temmaraja by Apung Ritoja, his concubine
  8. La Tenriepeng by We Saung Nriuq
  9. La Temmaukkeq by We Leleq Ellung
  10. La Sappe Ilek by Apung Talaga
  11. La Tenrioddang by Tenritalunruq
  12. Batara Lattuq by We Nyiliq Timoq, his beloved consort

In Javanese mythology

According to Javanese mythology, Batara Guru is a dewa that rules kahyangan, the realm of the gods. He is an avatar of Shiva that gives revelations, gifts and abilities. Batara Guru has a shakti (consort) named Dewi Uma and begat some children. In wayang kulit, Batara Guru is the only character whose feet face forward, with four hands, pointed canine teeth, a blue neck and paralyzed legs. He always rides his vahana, Nandini the cow, and is also known by several names including Sang Hyang Manikmaya, Sang Hyang Caturbuja, Sang Hyang Otipati, Sang Hyang Jagadnata, Nilakanta, Trinetra, Girinata.

Batara Guru has two brothers, Sang Hyang Maha Punggung and Sang Hyang Ismaya.[3][4][5] Their parents are Sang Hyang Tunggal and Dewi Rekatawati. One day, Dewi Rekatawati laid a shining egg. Sang Hyang Tunggal transformed the egg using his abilities. Its shell turned into Sang Hyang Maha Punggung, the firstborn. The egg white turned into Sang Hyang Ismaya (Semar), and its yolk turned into Sang Hyang Manikmaya. Later, Sang Hyang Tunggal appointed two elders to look after humans, especially Pandava, while Batara Guru (also known as Sang Hyang Manikmaya) led the gods in kahyangan.

The children of Batara Guru are listed as follows, from the firstborn downwards (according to Javanese wayang tradition):

  1. Batara Sambu
  2. Batara Brahma
  3. Batara Indra
  4. Batara Bayu
  5. Batara Wisnu
  6. Batara Kala
  7. Hanoman

References

  1. ^ Sunarto H., Viviane Sukanda-Tessier, ed. (1983). Cariosan Prabu Silihwangi. Naskah dan dokumen Nusantara (in Indonesian, French) 4. Lembaga Penelitian Perancis untuk Timur Jauh. p. 383. Statuette tricéphale assise, cuivre rouge moulé d'une beauté rarement égalée. C'est Batara Guru, un super dieu équivalent au Jupiter des Romains et au Brahma des Hindous. 
  2. ^ Wendy Doniger, Yves Bonnefoy, ed. (1993). "Divine Totality and Its Components: The Supreme Deity, the Divine Couple, and the Trinity in Indonesian Religions". Asian Mythologies (2d ed.). University of Chicago Press. pp. 161–170, 179.  
  3. ^ Sena Wangi, ed. (1999). Ensiklopedi wayang Indonesia: A-B (in Indonesian) 1. Sekretariat Nasional Pewayangan Indonesia. p. 259.  
  4. ^ P. B. R. Carey, ed. (1992). The British in Java, 1811-1816: a Javanese account. Oriental documents 10. Oxford University Press, for British Academy. p. 525.  
  5. ^ Weiss, Jerome (1977). Folk psychology of the Javanese of Ponorogo 2. Yale University. p. 522. 

See also

External links

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