World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Battle of Indus

Battle of Indus
Part of the Mongol invasion of Central Asia

Genghis Khan watch in amazement as the Khwarezmi Jalal ad-Din prepares to ford the Indus.
Date Spring 1221
Location Near the Indus River, located in modern-day Pakistan
Result Mongol victory
Khwarezmia added to the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire Khwarezmian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Genghis Khan Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
30,000 men[1] 50,000 men[1]
Casualties and losses
Heavy Heavy

The Battle of Indus was fought at the Indus river, in the year 1221 between Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the sultan of the Khwarezmid Empire and his only remaining forces of fifty thousand against the thirty thousand strong Mongolian army of Genghis Khan.


Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu was fleeing to India with his men together with thousands of refugees from Persia, following the Mongol sacking of several cities, including Bukhara and Samarkand, the latter being the Khwarezmian capital. After having won the Battle of Parwan,[2] near the city of Ghazni, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu headed for India to seek refuge together with his army of some fifty thousand men and several thousand refugees. However, the army of Genghis Khan caught up with him when he was about to cross the river Indus.


Jalal al-Din Khwarazm-Shah crossing the rapid Indus river, escaping Genghis Khan and his army

Jalal al-Din positioned his army of fifty thousand men in a defensive stance against the Mongols, placing one flank against the mountains while his other flank was covered by a river bend.[2] The initial Mongol charge, opening the battle, is beaten back.[2] Jalal al-Din counterattacks, nearly breaching the center of the Mongol army,[2] while Genghis sends a contingent of ten thousand men around the mountain and flanks Jalal al-Din's army.[2] With his army attacked from two directions and collapsing into chaos, Jalal al-Din fled across the Indus river.[2]


  1. ^ a b Trevor N. Dupuy and R. Ernest Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History, (Harper Collins Publishers, 1993), 366.
  2. ^ a b c d e f A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol. I, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 273.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.