World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Battle of Pagan

Battle of Pagan
Part of Mongol invasion of Burma
Date December 1287
Location Pagan
Result Mongol victory
Fall of Pagan Empire
Pagan Empire Mongol Empire
Commanders and leaders
unknown unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Minimal

The Battle of Pagan was fought in 1287 between Kublai Khan's Mongols and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire in Burma. The invasion ended the Pagan Empire, which disintegrated into several small kingdoms.


  • Overview 1
  • Aftermath 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4


The battle was initiated by the Mongols, who sensed opportunity in the political turmoil caused by their successful 1283 invasion of the Pagan Empire in the Battle of Bhamo. After Bhamo, the Mongol army penetrated the Irrawaddy River valley and established garrisons there. The political turmoil of these events tempted Kublai Khan's grandson Esen-Temür who was stationed in Yunnan, to action. Temür led a large army down the Irrawaddy river valley and captured the capital city Pagan, also sending military parties across the country to ensure submission.

The Burmese king Narathihapate, who fled Pagan to Lower Burma, prior to the battle, and the Burmese defense collapsed. The king is remembered in Burmese history as Tayokpyemin (lit. the king who ran away from the Chinese). In Lower Burma, the king was promptly assassinated by one of his sons Thihathu of Prome.


The 250-year-old Pagan Empire now disintegrated. The kingdom was fractured into several small power centers as the Mongols did not fill the power vacuum in the searing Irrawaddy valley. The Mongol army instead stayed farther north in Tagaung (present-day northern Mandalay Region).

In central Burma, another son of Narathihapate, Kyawswa, was installed as king by dowager queen Saw. But Kyawswa controlled only the immediate surrounding area of Pagan. Even in central Burma, the real power rested with three Pagan military commanders who through their small but well-disciplined army controlled the Kyaukse district, the most important granary of Pagan. Kyawswa had no choice but to recognize them as lords of Kyaukse. The brothers increasingly acted like sovereigns. Nearly ten years after the fall of Pagan, Kyawswa decided to became a Mongol vassal in January 1297. He received official Mongol recognition as the ruler of Burma in March 1298. Unsatisfied with their reduced status, the brothers dethroned Kyawswa in December 1298, and founded the Myinsaing Kingdom, officially ending the Pagan Kingdom. The Mongol army's effort to install their new nominee, one of Kyawswa's sons, to the Pagan throne in 1301 was unsuccessful. Two years later, in 1303, the Yuan court decided to withdraw completely from Upper Burma, and the Mongol army left Tagaung.[1]


  1. ^ Htin Aung, pp. 65-81


  • Hall, D.G.E. (1960). Burma (3rd ed.). Hutchinson University Library.  
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.