World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Biophysics

Article Id: WHEBN0000054000
Reproduction Date:

Title: Biophysics  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Physics, Outline of biology, Biology, Outline of natural science, Medical physics
Collection: Applied and Interdisciplinary Physics, Biophysics, Physical Sciences
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Biophysics

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science using methods of, and theories from, biochemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, computational biology and (complex) systems biology. It has been suggested as a bridge between biology and physics.

The term "biophysics" was originally introduced by Karl Pearson in 1892.[1][2]

Contents

  • Overview 1
  • History 2
  • Focus as a subfield 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Notes 6
  • External links 7

Overview

Molecular biophysics typically addresses biological questions similar to those in biochemistry and molecular biology, but more quantitatively. Scientists in this field conduct research concerned with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis, as well as how these interactions are regulated. A great variety of techniques are used to answer these questions.

Fluorescent imaging techniques, as well as electron microscopy, x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small-angle scattering (SAS) both with X-rays and neutrons (SAXS/SANS) are often used to visualize structures of biological significance. Conformational change in structure can be measured using techniques such as dual polarisation interferometry, circular dichroism, SAXS and SANS. Direct manipulation of molecules using optical tweezers or AFM, can also be used to monitor biological events where forces and distances are at the nanoscale. Molecular biophysicists often consider complex biological events as systems of interacting entities which can be understood e.g. through statistical mechanics, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. By drawing knowledge and experimental techniques from a wide variety of disciplines, biophysicists are often able to directly observe, model or even manipulate the structures and interactions of individual molecules or complexes of molecules.

In addition to traditional (i.e. molecular and cellular) biophysical topics like populations and ecosystems. Biophysical models are used extensively in the study of electrical conduction in single neurons, as well as neural circuit analysis in both tissue and whole brain.

History

Some of the earlier studies in biophysics were conducted in the 1840s by a group known as the Berlin school of physiologists. Among its members were pioneers such as Hermann von Helmholtz, Ernst Heinrich Weber, Carl F. W. Ludwig, and Johannes Peter Müller.[3] Biophysics might even be seen as dating back to the studies of Luigi Galvani.

The popularity of the field rose when the book Biophysical Society which now has about 7,000 members over the world.[4]

Focus as a subfield

Generally, biophysics does not have university-level departments of its own, but has presence as groups across departments within the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, physiology, physics, and neuroscience. What follows is a list of examples of how each department applies its efforts toward the study of biophysics. This list is hardly all inclusive. Nor does each subject of study belong exclusively to any particular department. Each academic institution makes its own rules and there is much overlap between departments.

Many biophysical techniques are unique to this field. Research efforts in biophysics are often initiated by scientists who were traditional physicists, chemists, and biologists by training.

See also

References

  1. ^ Pearson, Karl (1892). The Grammar of Science. p. 470. 
  2. ^ Roland Glaser. Biophysics: An Introduction. Springer; 23 April 2012. ISBN 978-3-642-25212-9.
  3. ^ Donald R. Franceschetti. Applied Science - 5 Volume Set. SALEM PressINC; 15 May 2012. ISBN 978-1-58765-781-8. p. 234.
  4. ^ Joe Rosen; Lisa Quinn Gothard. Encyclopedia of Physical Science. Infobase Publishing; 2009. ISBN 978-0-8160-7011-4. p. 49.

Notes

  • Perutz MF (1962). Proteins and Nucleic Acids: Structure and Function. Amsterdam: Elsevier.  
  • Perutz MF (1969). "The haemoglobin molecule". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B 173 (31): 113–40.  
  • Dogonadze RR, Urushadze ZD (1971). "Semi-Classical Method of Calculation of Rates of Chemical Reactions Proceeding in Polar Liquids".  
  • Volkenshtein M.V., Dogonadze R.R., Madumarov A.K., Urushadze Z.D. and Kharkats Yu.I. Theory of Enzyme Catalysis.- Molekuliarnaya Biologia (Moscow), 6, 1972, pp. 431–439 (In Russian, English summary. Available translations in Italian, Spanish, English, French)
  •  
  •  
  • Sneppen K, Zocchi G (2005-10-17). Physics in Molecular Biology (1 ed.).  
  • Glaser, Roland (2004-11-23). Biophysics: An Introduction (Corrected ed.). Springer.  
  • Hobbie RK, Roth BJ (2006). Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology (4th ed.). Springer.  
  • Cooper WG (2009). "Evidence for transcriptase quantum processing implies entanglement and decoherence of superposition proton states".  
  • Cooper WG (2009). "Necessity of quantum coherence to account for the spectrum of time-dependent mutations exhibited by bacteriophage T4".  
  • Goldfarb, Daniel (2010). Biophysics Demystified. McGraw-Hill.  

External links

  • Biophysical Society
  • Journal of Physiology: 2012 virtual issue Biophysics and Beyond
  • bio-physics-wiki
  • Link archive of learning resources for students: biophysika.de (60% English, 40% German)
  • Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, International Institute of Science, Technology, Education (IISTE), USA. Chief Editor of the journal is Ignat Ignatov.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.