Blood levels

Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Reference ranges for blood tests are studied within the field of clinical chemistry (also known as "clinical biochemistry", "chemical pathology" or "pure blood chemistry"), the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.

Blood test results should always be interpreted using the reference range provided by the laboratory that performed the test.[1]

Interpretation

A reference range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval).[2] It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood

In this article, all values (except the ones listed below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60-100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

  • All values in Hematology - red blood cells (except hemoglobin in plasma)
  • All values in Hematology - white blood cells
  • Platelet count (Plt)

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:

  • Vitamin B9 (Folic acid/Folate) in red blood cells
  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Units

Arterial or venous

If not otherwise specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture. An exception is for acid-base and blood gases, which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays).[5] Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues.[5]

Usual or optimal

Reference ranges are usually given as what are the usual (or normal) values found in the population, more specifically the prediction interval that 95% of the population fall into. This may also be called standard range. In contrast, optimal (health) range or therapeutic target is a reference range or limit that is based on concentrations or levels that are associated with optimal health or minimal risk of related complications and diseases. For most substances presented, the optimal levels are the ones normally found in the population as well. More specifically, optimal levels are generally close to a central tendency of the values found in the population. However, usual and optimal levels may differ substantially, most notably among vitamins and blood lipids, so these tables give limits on both standard and optimal (or target) ranges.

In addition, some values, including troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide, are given as the estimated appropriate cutoffs to distinguish healthy people from specific conditions, which here are myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, respectively, for the aforementioned substances.

Variability

Further information: Reference range

References range may vary with age, sex, race, diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs and stress. Reference ranges often depend on the analytical method used, for reasons such as inaccuracy, lack of standardisation, lack of certified reference material and differing antibody reactivity.[6] Also, reference ranges may be inaccurate when the reference groups used to establish the ranges are small.

Sorted by concentration

A separate printable image is available for mass and molarity

Smaller, narrower boxes indicate a more tight homeostatic regulation when measured as standard "usual" reference range.

By mass and molarity

Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There appears to be the greatest cluster of substances in the yellow part (μg/L or nmol/L), becoming sparser in the green part (mg/L or μmol/L). However, there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L or mmol/L).

The unit conversions of substance concentrations from the molar to the mass concentration scale above are made as follows:

  • Numerically: molar concentration x molar mass = mass concentration
  • Measured directly in distance on the scales:

\log_{10} \frac{\textit{molar~mass}}{1000} = \textit{distance~to~right~(decades)} , where distance is the direct (not logarithmic) distance in number of decades or "octaves" to the right the mass concentration is found. To translate from mass to molar concentration, the dividend (molar mass and the divisor (1000) in the division change places, or, alternatively, distance to right is changed to distance to left. Substances with a molar mass around 1000g/mol (e.g. thyroxine) are almost vertically aligned in the mass and molar images. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540,[7] is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. Substances with molar mass below 1000g/mol (e.g. electrolytes and metabolites) would have "negative" distance, that is, masses deviating to the left.

Many substances given in mass concentration are not given in molar amount because they haven't been added to the article.

The diagram above can also be used as an alternative way to convert any substance concentration (not only the normal or optimal ones) from molar to mass units and vice versa for those substances appearing in both scales, by measuring how much they are horizontally displaced from one another (representing the molar mass for that substance), and using the same distance from the concentration to be converted to determine the equivalent concentration in terms of the other unit. For example, on a certain monitor, the horizontal distance between the upper limits for parathyroid hormone in pmol/L and pg/mL may be 7 cm, with the mass concentration to the right. A molar concentration of, for example, 5 pmol/L would therefore correspond to a mass concentration located 7 cm to the right in the mass diagram, that is, approximately 45 pg/mL.

By units

Units don't necessarily imply anything about molarity or mass.

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, being measured in mU/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9, being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity

White blood cells

Sorted by category

Ions and trace metals

Further information: Trace metals

Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper.

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Sodium (Na) 135,[8] 137[9][4] 145,[9][4] 147[8] mmol/L or mEq/L[8]
310,[10] 320[10] 330,[10] 340[10] mg/dl
Potassium (K) 3.5,[8][4] 3.6[9] 5.0,[8][9][4] 5.1 mmol/L or mEq/L[8] See hypokalemia
or hyperkalemia
14[11] 20[11] mg/dl
Chloride (Cl) 95,[8] 98,[12] 100[4] 105,[8] 106,[12] 110[4] mmol/L or mEq/L[8]
340[13] 370[13] mg/dl
Ionized calcium (Ca) 1.03,[14] 1.10[4] 1.23,[14] 1.30[4] mmol/L
4.1,[15] 4.4[15] 4.9,[15] 5.2[15] mg/dL
Total calcium (Ca) 2.1,[8][16] 2.2[4] 2.5,[16][4] 2.6,[16] 2.8[8] mmol/L
8.4,[8] 8.5[17] 10.2,[8] 10.5[17] mg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) - male 65,[18] 76[9] 176,[18] 198[9] µg/dL
11.6,[19][20] 13.6[20] 30,[19] 32,[20] 35[20] μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - female 26,[9] 50[18] 170[9][18] µg/dL
4.6,[20] 8.9[19] 30.4[19] μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - newborns 100[18] 250[18] µg/dL
18[20] 45[20] µmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - children 50[18] 120[18] µg/dL
9[20] 21[20] µmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) 240,[18] 262[9] 450,[18] 474[9] μg/dL
43,[20] 47[20] 81,[20] 85[20] µmol/L
Transferrin 190,[21] 194,[4] 204[9] 326,[4] 330,[21] 360[9] mg/dL
25[22] 45[22] μmol/L
Transferrin saturation 20[18] 50[18]  %
Ferritin - Male 12[23] 300[23] ng/mL
27[24] 670[24] pmol/L
Ferritin - Female 12[23] 150[23] ng/mL
27[24] 330[24] pmol/L
Ammonia 10,[25] 20[26] 35,[25] 65[26] μmol/L
17,[27] 34[27] 60,[27] 110[27] μg/dL
Copper 70[17] 150[17] µg/dL
11[28] 24[28] μmol/L
Ceruloplasmin 15[17] 60[17] mg/dL
1[29] 4[29] μmol/L
Phosphate (HPO42−) 0.8 1.5[30] mmol/L
Inorganic phosphorus (serum) 1.0[8] 1.5[8] mmol/L
3.0[8] 4.5[8] mg/dL
Copper (Cu) 11[31] 24 μmol/L
Zinc (Zn) 60,[32] 72[33] 110,[33] 130[32] μg/dL
9.2,[34] 11[4] 17,[4] 20[34] µmol/L
Magnesium 1.5,[17] 1.7[35] 2.0,[17] 2.3[35] mEq/L or mg/dL
0.6,[36] 0.7[4] 0.82,[36] 0.95[4] mmol/L

Acid-base and blood gases

Further information: Acid-base homeostasis
Further information: Arterial blood gas

If arterial/venous is not specified for an acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard for other blood tests.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values.[5] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.[37]

Test Arterial/Venous Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
pH Arterial 7.34,[9] 7.35[8] 7.44,[9] 7.45[8]
Venous 7.31[38] 7.41[38]
[H+] Arterial 36[8] 44[8] nmol/L
3.6[39] 4.4[39] ng/dL
Base excess Arterial & venous[38] -3[38] +3[38] mEq/L
oxygen partial pressure (pO2) Arterial pO2 10,[8] 11[40] 13,[40] 14[8] kPa
75,[8][9] 83[17] 100,[9] 105[8] mmHg or torr
Venous 4.0[40] 5.3[40] kPa
30[38] 40[38] mmHg or torr
Oxygen saturation Arterial 94,[38] 95,[12] 96[17] 100[12][17]  %
Venous Approximately 75[12]
Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) Arterial PaCO2 4.4,[8] 4.7[40] 5.9,[8] 6.0[40] kPa
33,[8] 35[9] 44,[8] 45[9] mmHg or torr
Venous 5.5[40] 6.8[40] kPa
41[38] 51[38] mmHg or torr
Absolute content of carbon dioxide (CO2) Arterial 23[38] 30[38] mmol/L
100[41] 132[41] mg/dL
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) Arterial & venous 18[17] 23[17] mmol/L
110[42] 140[42] mg/dL
Standard bicarbonate (SBCe) Arterial & venous 21, 22[8] 27, 28[8] mmol/L or mEq/L[8]
134[42] 170[42] mg/dL

Liver function

Further information: Liver function tests
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Total Protein 60,[8] 63[9] 78,[8] 82,[9] 84[17] g/L see hypoproteinemia
Albumin 35[8][43] 48,[9] 55[8] g/L see hypoalbuminemia
3.5[9] 4.8,[9] 5.5[8] U/L
540[44] 740[44] μmol/L
Globulins 23[8] 35[8] g/L
Total Bilirubin 1.7,[45] 2,[8] 3.4,[45] 5[4] 17,[8][45] 22,[45] 25[4] μmol/L
0.1,[8] 0.2,[9] 0.29[46] 1.0,[8][17] 1.3,[9] 1.4[46] mg/dL
Direct/Conjugated Bilirubin 0.0[8] or N/A[4] 5,[8] 7[45][4] μmol/L
0[8][9] 0.3,[8][9] 0.4[17] mg/dL
Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT[4]) 5,[47] 7,[9] 8[8] 20,[8] 21,[12] 56[9] U/L Also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Female 0.15[4] 0.75[4] µkat/L
Male 0.15[4] 1.1[4]
Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT[4]) Female 6[48] 34[48] IU/L Also called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
0.25[4] 0.60[4] µkat/L
Male 8[48] 40[48] IU/L
0.25[4] 0.75[4] µkat/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) Female 42[47] 98[47] U/L
Male 53[47] 128[47]
(Enzyme activity) 0.6[4] 1.8[4] µkat/L
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) 5,[47] 8[9] 40,[47] 78[9] U/L
Women 0.63[49] µkat/L
Men 0.92[49] µkat/L

Cardiac tests

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Creatine kinase (CK) male 24,[50] 38,[9] 60[47] 174,[17] 320[47] U/L
or ng/mL
0.42[51] 1.5[51] µkat/L
female 24,[50] 38,[9] 96[17] 140,[17] 200[47] U/L
or ng/mL
0.17[51] 1.17[51] µkat/L
CK-MB 0 3,[9] 3.8,[4] 5[47] ng/mL or μg/L[4]
Myoglobin Female 1[52] 66[52] ng/mL or µg/L
Male 17[52] 106[52]
Cutoffs and ranges for troponin types, 12 hrs after onset of pain
Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Troponin-I 0.2[53] ng/mL or μg/L Upper limit of normal
0.2[53] 1.0[53] ng/mL or μg/L Acute Coronary Syndrome
0.4[54] 2.0[54] ng/mL or μg/L Moderately increased[54]
1.0,[53] 1.5[55] n/a[53][55] ng/mL or μg/L Myocardial Infarction likely
Troponin-T 0.02[53] ng/mL or μg/L Upper limit of normal
0.02[53] 0.10[53] ng/mL or μg/L Acute Coronary Syndrome
0.10[53] n/a[53] ng/mL or μg/L Myocardial Infarction likely
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
-more detailed ranges in BNP article
Interpretation Range / Cutoff
Congestive heart failure unlikely < 100 pg/mL[56][57]
"Gray zone" 100-500 pg/mL[56][57]
Congestive heart failure likely >500 pg/mL[56][57]
NT-proBNP
-more detailed ranges in NT-proBNP article
Interpretation Age Cutoff
Congestive heart failure likely < 75years > 125 pg/mL[51]
>75 years >450pg/mL[51]

Lipids

Further information: Blood lipids
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Therapeutic target
Triglycerides 10 – 39 years 54[17] 110[17] mg/dL < 100 mg/dL[58]
or 1.1[58] mmol/L
0.61[59] 1.2[59] mmol/L
40 – 59 years 70[17] 150[17] mg/dL
0.77[59] 1.7[59] mmol/L
> 60 years 80[17] 150[17] mg/dL
0.9[59] 1.7[59] mmol/L
Total cholesterol 3.0,[60] 3.6[8][60] 5.0,[4][61] 6.5[8] mmol/L < 3.9[58]
120,[9] 140[8] 200,[9] 250[8] mg/dL < 150[58]
HDL cholesterol female 1.0,[62] 1.2,[4] 1.3[60] 2.2[62] mmol/L > 1.0[62] or 1.6[60]  mmol/L
> 40[63] or 60[64] mg/dL
40,[63] 50[65] 86[63] mg/dL
HDL cholesterol male 0.9[62][4] 2.0[62] mmol/L
35[63] 80[63] mg/dL
LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)
2.0,[62] 2.4[61] 3.0,[61][4] 3.4[62] mmol/L < 2.5[62]
80,[63] 94[63] 120,[63] 130[63] mg/dL < 100[63]
LDL/HDL quotient n/a 5[4] (unitless)

Tumour markers

Further information: Tumour markers
Test Cutoff Unit Comments
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) 44[9] ng/mL or µg/L Hepatocellular carcinoma or testicular cancer
Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG) 5[9] IU/l or mU/ml in male and non-pregnant female
CA19-9 40[9] U/ml Pancreatic cancer
CA-125 30,[66] 35[67] kU/L or U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 50 years
3.4,[4] 3.6[68] μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 70 years
4.1[68] μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - smokers 5[69] μg/l
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) 2.5,[4] 4[9] μg/L[9][4] or ng/mL[17] below age 45 <2.5 μg/L
PAP 3[17] units/dL (Bodansky units)
Calcitonin
-more detailed cutoffs in Calcitonin article
5,[70] 15[70] ng/L or pg/mL Cutoff against medullary thyroid cancer[70]

Endocrinology

Thyroid hormones

Further information: Thyroid function tests
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)
Adults -
standard range
0.3,[4] 0.4,[9] 0.5,[17] 0.6[71] 4.0,[4] 4.5,[9] 6.0[17] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Adults -
optimal range
0.3,[72] 0.5[73] 2.0,[73] 3.0[72] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Infants 1.3[74] 19[74] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Free thyroxine (FT4)
-more detailed ranges in
Thyroid function tests article
Normal adult 0.7,[75] 0.8[9] 1.4,[75] 1.5,[9] 1.8[76] ng/dL
9,[77][4] 10,[78] 12[79] 18,[4][77] 23[79] pmol/L
Child/Adolescent
31 d - 18 y
0.8[75] 2.0[75] ng/dL
10[77] 26[77] pmol/L
Pregnant 0.5[75] 1.0[75] ng/dL
6.5[77] 13[77] pmol/L
Total thyroxine 4,[78] 5.5[9] 11,[78] 12.3[9] μg/dL
60[78][79] 140,[78] 160[79] nmol/L
Free triiodothyronine (FT3) Normal adult 0.2[78] 0.5[78] ng/dL
3.1[80] 7.7[80] pmol/L
Children 2-16 y 0.1[81] 0.6[81] ng/dL
1.5[80] 9.2[80] pmol/L
Total triiodothyronine 60,[9] 75[78] 175,[78] 181[9] ng/dL
0.9,[4] 1.1[78] 2.5,[4] 2.7[78] nmol/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) 12[9] 30[9] mg/L
Thyroglobulin (Tg) 1.5[78] 30[78] pmol/L
1[78] 20[78] μg/L

Sex hormones

Further information: Sex steroid

The diagrams at right take inter-cycle and inter-woman variability into account in displaying reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH.[82]

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Dihydrotestosterone adult male 30[83] 85[83] ng/dL
Testosterone Male, overall 8,[84] 10[85] 27,[84] 35[85] nmol/L
230,[86] 300[87] 780[86] - 1000[87] ng/dL
Male < 50 years 10[4] 45[4] nmol/L
290[86] 1300[86] ng/dL
Male > 50 years 6.2[4] 26[4] nmol/L
180[86] 740[86] ng/dL
Female 0.7[85] 2.8[85] - 3.0[4] nmol/L
20[87] 80[87] - 85[86] ng/dL
17-Hydroxyprogesterone male 0.06[17] 3.0[17] mg/L
0.18[88] 9.1[88] µmol/l
Female (Follicular phase) 0.2[17] 1.0[17] mg/L
0.6[88] 3.0[88] µmol/l
separate diagram Prepubertal <1[89] 3[89] IU/L
Adult male 1[89] 8[89]
Adult female (follicular
and luteal phase)
1[89] 11[89]
Adult female (Ovulation) 6[89]
95% PI (standard)
26[89]
95% PI)
5[90]
90% PI (used in diagram)
15[90]
(90% PI)
Post-menopausal female 30[89] 118[89]
separate diagram Female, peak 20[90]
90% PI (used in diagram)
75[90]
(90% PI)
IU/L
Female, post-menopausal 15[91] 60[91]
Male aged 18+ 2[92] 9[92]
Estradiol
(an estrogen)
-more detailed ranges in
estradiol article
Adult male 50[93] 200[93] pmol/L
14[94] 55[94] pg/mL
Adult female (day 5 of follicular phase,
and luteal phase)
70[93] 500,[93] 600[93] pmol/L
19[94] 140,[94] 160[94] pg/mL
Adult female - free (not protein bound) 0.5[95] 9[95] pg/mL
1.7[95] 33[95] pmol/L
Post-menopausal female N/A[93] < 130[93] pmol/L
N/A[94] < 35[94] pg/mL
Progesterone
-more detailed ranges
in Progesterone article
Female in mid-luteal phase (day 21-23) 17,[90] 35[96] 92[96] nmol/L
6,[90] 11[97] 29[97] ng/mL
Androstenedione Adult male and female 60[91] 270[91] ng/dL
Post-menopausal female < 180[91]
Prepubertal < 60[91]
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
-more detailed ranges
in DHEA-S article
Adult male and female 30[98] 400[98] µg/dL
SHBG
-more detailed ranges
in SHBG article
Adult female 40[99] 120[99] nmol/L
Adult male 20[99] 60[99]
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)
-more detailed ranges in
AMH article
13–45 years 0.7[100] 20[100] ng/mL
5[101] 140[101] pmol/l

Other hormones

Further information: Hormones
Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 4.4[102] 18,[103] 22[102] pmol/L
20[9] 80,[104] 100[9] pg/mL
Cortisol 09:00 am 140[105] 700[105] nmol/L
5[106] 25[106] μg/dL
Midnight 80[105] 350[105] nmol/L
2.9[106] 13[106] μg/dL
Growth hormone (fasting) 0 5[8] ng/mL
Growth hormone (arginine stimulation) 7[8] n/a ng/mL
IGF-1
-more detailed ranges in
IGF-1 article
Female, 20 yrs 110[107] 420[107] ng/mL
Female, 75 yrs 55[107] 220[107]
Male, 20 yrs 160[107] 390[107]
Male, 75 yrs 48[107] 200[107]
Prolactin
-more detailed ranges in
Prolactin article
Female 71,[108] 105[108] 348,[108] 548[108] mIU/L
3.4,[108] 3.9[108] 16.4,[108] 20.3[108] µg/L
Male 58,[108] 89[108] 277,[108] 365[108] mIU/L
2.7,[108] 3.3[108] 13.0,[108] 13.5[108] µg/L
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 10,[109] 17[110] 65,[109] 70[110] pg/mL
1.1,[4] 1.8[111] 6.9,[4] 7.5[111] pmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)
-Standard reference range
8,[17][112] 9[112] 40,[112] 80[17] ng/mL
20,[113] 23[114] 95,[114] 150[113] nmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol
-Therapeutic target range
30,[115] 40[116] 65,[116] 100[115] ng/mL
85,[58] 100[116] 120,[58] 160[116] nmol/L
Plasma renin activity 0.29,[117] 1.9[118] 3.7[117][118] ng/(mL*hour)
3.3,[119] 21[120] 41[119][120] mcU/mL
Aldosterone
-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone article
Adult 19,[119] 34.0[119] ng/dL
530,[121] 940[121] pmol/L
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio
-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone/renin ratio article
Adult 13.1,[122] 35.0[122] ng/dl per ng/(mL·h)
360,[122] 970[122] pmol/liter per µg/(L·h)

Vitamins

Also including the vitamin B12)-related amino acid homocysteine.

Test Patient type Standard range Unit Optimal range
Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit
Vitamin A 30[17] 65[17] µg/dL
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Serum
Age > 1year 3.0[123] 16[123] ng/mL or μg/L 5[124]
6.8[125] 36[125] nmol/l 11[125]
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Red blood cells
200[123] 600[123] ng/mL or μg/L
450[125] 1400[125] nmol/L
Pregnant ng/mL or μg/L 400[123]
nmol/L 900[123]
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) 130,[126] 160[127] 700,[126] 950[127] ng/L
100,[128] 120[4] 520,[128] 700[4] pmol/L
Homocysteine
-more detailed ranges in
Homocysteine article
3.3,[129] 5.9[129] 7.2,[129] 15.3[129] μmol/L 6.3[58]
45,[130] 80[130] 100,[130] 210[130] μg/dL 85[58]
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 0.4[17] 1.5[17] mg/dL 0.9[58]
23[131] 85[131] μmol/L 50[58]
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D) 8,[17][112] 9[112] 40,[112] 80[17] ng/mL 30,[115] 40[116] 65,[116] 100[115]
20,[113] 23[114] 95,[114] 150[113] nmol/L 85,[58] 100[116] 120,[58] 160[116]
Vitamin E μmol/L 28[58]
mg/dL 1.2[58]

Toxins

Test Limit type Limit Unit
Lead Optimal health range < 20[12] or 40[17] µg/dL
Blood ethanol content Limit for drunk driving 0,[132] 0.2,[132] 0.8[132] or g/L
17.4[133] mmol/L

Hematology

Red blood cells

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Hemoglobin (Hb) male 2.0,[134] 2.1[135][8] 2.5,[134] 2.7[135][8] mmol/L Higher in neonates, lower in children.
130,[4] 132,[9] 135[8] 162,[9] 170,[4] 175[8] g/L
female 1.8,[134] 1.9[135][8] 2.3,[134] 2.5[8][135][134] mmol/L Sex difference negligible until adulthood.
120[4][8][9] 150,[4] 152,[9] 160[8][17] g/L
Hemoglobin subunits (sometimes displayed simply as "Hemoglobin") male 8.0,[136] 8.4[136] 10.0,[136] 10.8[136] mmol/L 4 per hemoglobin molecule
female 7.2,[136] 7.6[136] 9.2,[136] 10.0[136]
Hemoglobin in plasma 0.16[8] 0.62[8] μmol/L Normally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells
1 4 mg/dL
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 50 years 3.6[4] 5.0[4]  % of Hb
> 50 years 3.9[4] 5.3[4]
Haptoglobin < 50 years 0.35[4] 1.9[4] g/L
> 50 years 0.47[4] 2.1[4]
Hematocrit (Hct) male 0.39,[4] 0.4,[9] 0.41,[8] 0.45[17] 0.50,[4] 0.52,[9] 0.53,[8] 0.62[17]
female 0.35,[4] 0.36,[8] 0.37[9][17] 0.46,[8][9][4] 0.48[17]
Child 0.31[9] 0.43[9]
Mean cell volume (MCV) Male 76,[17] 82[9] 100,[17] 102[9] fL Cells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.
Female 78[9] 101[9] fL
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) 11.5[9] 14.5[9]  %
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) 0.39[8] 0.54[8] fmol/cell
25,[8] 27[17][4] 32,[17] 33,[4] 35[8] pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 31,[9] 32[17][4] 35,[9] 36[17][4] g/dL or %[note 1]
4.8,[137] 5.0[137] 5.4,[137] 5.6[137] mmol/L
Erythrocytes/Red blood cells (RBC) male 4.2,[17] 4.3[8][9][4] 5.7,[4] 5.9,[8] 6.2,[9] 6.9[17] x1012/L
or
mln/mm3
Female 3.5,[8] 3.8,[9] 3.9[4] 5.1,[4] 5.5[8][9]
Infant/Child 3.8[9] 5.5[9]
Reticulocytes Adult 26[4] 130[4] x109/L
Adult 0.5[8][9] 1.5[8][9]  % of RBC
Newborn 1.1[9] 4.5[9]  % of RBC
Infant 0.5[9] 3.1[9]  % of RBC

White blood cells

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
White Blood Cell Count (WBC) Adult 3.5,[4] 3.9,[138] 4.1,[9] 4.5[8] 9.0,[4] 10.0,[138] 10.9,[9] 11[8]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
Newborn 9[139] 30[139]
1 year old 6[139] 18[139]
Neutrophil granulocytes
(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)
Adult 1.3,[4] 1.8,[138] 2[139] 5.4,[4] 7,[138] 8[139] x109/L
45-54[8] 62,[8] 74  % of WBC
Newborn 6[139] 26[139] x109/L
Neutrophilic band forms Adult 0.7[139] x109/L
3[8] 5[8]  % of WBC
Lymphocytes Adult 0.7,[4] 1.0[138][139] 3.5,[138] 3.9,[4] 4.8[139] x109/L
16-25[8] 33,[8] 45  % of WBC
Newborn 2[139] 11[139] x109/L
Monocytes Adult 0.1,[4] 0.2[140][126] 0.8[126][139][4] x109/L
3,[8] 4.0 7,[8] 10  % of WBC
Newborn 0.4[139] 3.1[139] x109/L
Mononuclear leukocytes
(Lymphocytes + monocytes)
Adult 1.5 5 x109/L
20 35  % of WBC
CD4+ cells Adult 0.4,[9] 0.5[12] 1.5,[12] 1.8[9] x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytes Adult 0.0,[4] 0.04[126] 0.44,[126] 0.45,[139] 0.5[4] x109/L
1[8] 3,[8] 7  % of WBC
Newborn 0.02[139] 0.85[139] x109/L
Basophil granulocytes Adult 40[138] 100,[126][4] 200,[139] 900[138] x106/L
0.0 0.75,[8] 2  % of WBC
Newborn 0.64[139] x109/L

Coagulation

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Thrombocyte/Platelet count (Plt) 140,[9] 150[8][4] 350,[17][4] 400,[8] 450[9] x109/L or
x1000/µL
Mean platelet volume (MPV) 7.4[141] 10.4[141] fL
Prothrombin time (PT) 10,[12] 11,[8][142] 12[9] 13,[12] 13.5,[142] 14,[9] 15[8] s PT reference varies between laboratory kits - INR is standardised
INR 0.9[4] 1.2[4] The INR is a corrected ratio of a patient's PT to normal
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) 18,[9] 30[12][4] 28,[9] 42,[4] 45[12] s
Thrombin clotting time (TCT) 11 18 s
Fibrinogen 1.7,[9] 2.0[4] 3.6,[4] 4.2[9] g/L
Antithrombin 0.80[4] 1.2[4] kIU/L
Bleeding time 2 9 minutes
Viscosity 1.5[143] 1.72[143] cP

Immunology

Acute phase proteins

Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
(ESR)
Male 0 Age÷2[144] mm/hr ESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females.[145]
Female (Age+10)÷2[144]
C-reactive protein (CRP) n/a 5,[146][4] 6[147] mg/L
200,[148] 240[148] nmol/L
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) 20,[149] 22[150] 38,[150] 53[149] μmol/L
89,[151] 97[4] 170,[4] 230[151] mg/dL

Isotypes of antibodies

Further information: Antibody
Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
IgA Adult 70,[4] 110[152] 360,[4] 560[152] mg/dL
IgD 0.5[152] 3.0[152]
IgE 0.01[152] 0.04[152]
IgG 800[152] 1800[152]
IgM 54[152] 220[152]

Autoantibodies

For clinical associations, see Autoantibody.

Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in standard reference ranges, the values usually denote where they are said to be present, or whether the test is a positive test. There may also be an equivocal interval, where it is uncertain whether there is a significantly increased level. All included values[153] are given for the ELISA test.

Test Negative Equivocal Positive Unit
anti-SS-A (Ro) < 15[154] 15-25[154] > 25[154] Units
per
millilitre
(U/mL)
anti-SS-B (La) < 3[154] 3 – 4[154] > 4[154]
Anti ds-DNA < 40[154] 40 – 60[154] > 60[154]
Anti ss-DNA < 8[154] 8 - 10[154] > 10[154]
Anti-histone antibodies < 25[154] n/a[154] > 25[154]
Cytoplasmic/classical
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies
(c-ANCA)
< 20[154] 21 - 30[154] > 30[154]
Perinuclear
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (p-ANCA)
< 5[154] n/a > 5[154]
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) < 10[154] n/a[154] > 10[154]
Rheumatoid factor (RF) < 20 20 - 30 > 30[9]
Antistreptolysin O titre
(ASOT) in
preschoolers
> 100
ASOT at school age > 250[9]
ASOT in adults > 125[9]
Test Negative Low/weak positive Moderate positive High/strong positive Unit
Anti-phospholipid IgG < 20[154] 20 –30[154] 31 – 50[154] > 51[154] GPLU/ml[154]
Anti-phospholipid IgM < 1.5[154] 1.5 –2.5[154] 2 – 9.9[154] > 10[154] MPL /ml[154]
Anti-phospholipid IgA < 10[154] 10 -20[154] 21 – 30[154] > 31[154] arb U/ml[154]
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies < 20[154] 20 – 39[154] 40 - 59[154] > 60[154] EU[154]

Other enzymes and proteins

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 50[17] 150[17] U/L
0.4[47] 1.7[47] μmol/L
1.8[4] 3.4[4] µkat/L < 70 years old[4]
Amylase 25,[8] 30,[9] 53[17] 110,[9] 120,[155] 123,[17] 125,[8] 190[47] U/L
0.15[4] 1.1[4] µkat/L
200[148] 240[148] nmol/L
D-dimer n/a 500[156] ng/mL Higher in pregnant women[157]
0.5[4] mg/L
Lipase 7,[9] 10,[17] 23[47] 60,[9] 150,[17] 208[47] U/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 23[47] 57[47] U/L
Acid phosphatase 3.0[47] ng/mL
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) 2.3[4] 16[4] µg/L

Other electrolytes and metabolites

Electrolytes and Metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Osmolality 275,[8] 280,[17] 281[4] 295,[8] 296,[17] 297[4] mOsm/kg Plasma weight excludes solutes
Osmolarity Slightly less than osmolality mOsm/l Plasma volume includes solutes
Urea 3.0[158] 7.0[158] mmol/L BUN - blood urea nitrogen
7[8] 18,[8] 21[9] mg/dL
* Uric acid[9] 0.18[8] 0.48[8] mmol/L
Female 2.0[17] 7.0[17] mg/dL
Male 2.1[17] 8.5[17] mg/dL
Creatinine male 60,[4] 68[159] 90,[4] 118[159] μmol/L May be complemented with creatinine clearance
0.7,[160] 0.8[160] 1.0,[160] 1.3[160] mg/dL
female 50,[4] 68[159] 90,[4] 98[159] μmol/L
0.6,[160] 0.8[160] 1.0,[160] 1.1[160] mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio 5[17] 35[17] -
Plasma glucose (fasting) 3.8,[8] 4.0[4] 6.0,[4] 6.1[161] mmol/L See also glycosylated hemoglobin (in hematology)
65,[9] 70,[8] 72[162] 100,[161] 110[17] mg/dL
Full blood glucose (fasting) 3.3[4] 5.6[4] mmol/L
60[162] 100[162] mg/dL
Lactate (Venous) 4.5[17] 19.8[17] mg/dL
0.5[163] 2.2[163] mmol/L
Lactate (Arterial) 4.5[17] 14.4[17] mg/dL
0.5[163] 1.6[163] mmol/L
Pyruvate 300[17] 900[17] μg/dL
34[164] 102[164] μmol/L

See also

Notes

References

    Jump the queue or expand by hand Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011 Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011

External links

  • GPnotebook
  • Descriptions at amarillomed.com
  • Values at lymphomation.org


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