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Boris Stefanov

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Boris Stefanov

Boris Stefanov (also known as Boris Ștefanov, Draganov or Dragu; Bulgarian: Борис Стефанов Матеев, Boris Stefanov Mateev; October 8, 1883 – October 11, 1969) was a Romanian communist politician, who served as general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR or PCdR) from 1936 to 1940.

Contents

  • Biography 1
    • Early life and activism 1.1
    • Stefanov and Romanian Communism 1.2
    • Exile and later polemics 1.3
  • Notes 2
  • References 3

Biography

Early life and activism

Stefanov was born into a wealthy landowning family in

  • Elektronikus kampánylevél-archívum"Bulgaria. The Bulgarian Communist Party", September 11, 1964, at
  • Open Society Archives"Disgraced Romanian Decorated in Bulgaria F-80", September 4, 1963, at the
  • (Bulgarian) Trendafila Angelova, "Boris Stefanov", in Izvestiya na Instituta za istoriya na BKP, 51, 1984. p. 351-358.
  • (Romanian) Cristina Diac, "Lupta pentru putere în Partidul Comunist" ("The Power Struggle inside the Communist Party"), in Jurnalul Național, January 12, 2005
  • Victor Frunză, Istoria stalinismului în România ("The History of Stalinism in Romania"), Humanitas, Bucharest, 1990
  • (Romanian) Valter Roman, "Address to the Party Leadership" (December 1961), at Sfera Politicii
  • Vladimir Tismăneanu, Stalinism pentru eternitate, Polirom, Iași, 2005 ISBN 973-681-899-3 (translation of Stalinism for All Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2003, ISBN 0-520-23747-1)
  • (Romanian) Ilarion Țiu, "Aliatul lui Stalin" ("Stalin's Ally"), in Jurnalul Național, June 7, 2005

References

  1. ^ Angelova, p. 341
  2. ^ a b c Angelova, p. 343
  3. ^ Angelova, p. 342
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Ţiu
  5. ^ Angelova, p. 344
  6. ^ a b Tismăneanu, p.95
  7. ^ Tismăneanu, p.313
  8. ^ Tismăneanu, p.74
  9. ^ a b Angelova, p. 347
  10. ^ Tismăneanu, p.72
  11. ^ Tismăneanu, p.74, 75, 77, 95; Ţiu
  12. ^ Tismăneanu, p.78
  13. ^ Frunză, p.40, 53
  14. ^ Diac; Ţiu
  15. ^ Diac
  16. ^ Diac; Tismăneanu, p.80, 86, 90, 118
  17. ^ Tismăneanu, p.86
  18. ^ Frunză, p.40, 53; Tismăneanu, p.95-96
  19. ^ Angelova, p. 355
  20. ^ a b c "Disgraced Romanian..."
  21. ^ Roman
  22. ^ "Bulgaria. The Bulgarian Communist Party"; "Disgraced Romanian..."
  23. ^ Angelova, pp. 357-358

Notes

Party political offices
Preceded by
Alexander Stefanski
General secretary

of the Romanian Communist Party
1936–1940

Succeeded by
Ştefan Foriş

[23] During the later part of his life, Stefanov collaborated with several Bulgarian newspapers and magazines, and also participated in friendship committees seeking to strengthen Bulgaria's relation with Romania, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia. He died in a car accident in October 1969.[22].Bulgarian Communist Party The award was viewed as a deliberate attempt to irritate Romania's leadership, and a sign of cooling relations between the PCR and the [20] On his 80th birthday in 1963, the

Stefanov was a friend of Petre Borilă, who notably added a claim that Stefanov had admired Nazism and had seen in it a path to a socialist economy.[21]

Removed from the party's leadership in 1940, he was denounced in 1951 by the Central Committee of the PCR, which accused him of having been "divorced from the working class", of having introduced the theory of "neo-serfdom" (see Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea), as well as of having advocated a "liquidationist" policy of a united front with bourgeois parties in 1927.[20] The actual leadership of the PCR inside Romania was taken over by Bela Breiner.[4]

Exile and later polemics

Although himself under suspicion from Soviet overseers, he fled to Moscow in 1938, after PCR activities had been made virtually impossible by authorities of the National Renaissance Front.[4]

Stefanov led the Romanian delegation to the Fifth and Seventh Comintern World Congresses, after the formation of Popular Fronts was decided by Joseph Stalin; despite his foreign origin, he was perceived as a local member of the PCR, and became general secretary with the deposition of Alexander Stefanski (part of a Soviet-endorsed move allowing more autonomy to the Romanian section).[18] At the Seventh Congress he was also elected a member in the Executive Committee of the Communist International, entering its presidium, where he remained until August 1941.[19] Subsequently, Stefanov engaged in a campaign against alleged Trotskyists, mirroring Soviet measures that led to the Great Purge; a committed Stalinist, he accused both Elena Filipescu and Marcel Pauker of having sided with Leon Trotsky.[4]

After many party activists, including the entire Politburo, took refuge to the Soviet Union, Stefanov, who was eventually set free, stood as leader of the local Secretariat (together with Pavel Tcacenko).[16] He maintained his leadership position after Vitali Holostenco was appointed general secretary, although he ensured close contacts with David Fabian, Holostenco's rival.[17]

Although, like Cristescu, he was criticized by the Comintern for his allegedly minimalist outlook,[12] he rose to the leadership of the PCR soon after the party was outlawed in 1924, and was known at the time under various pseudonyms (including Popescu, Draganov, and Dragu).[13] Again arrested in 1926, after a Siguranța Statului crackdown,[14] Stefanov was among those exposed after authorities pressured one of his comrades to hand out the names of all PCR leaders.[15] Supported by the International Red Aid with interventions from Marcel Pauker, he was nonetheless sentenced for treason during a trial he faced in Cluj (the other person indicted, Vasile Luca, was acquitted).[4]

Stefanov and Romanian Communism

Indicted in the Dealul Spirii Trial[9] and subject to an amnesty,[10] Stefanov was elected to the General Council of the Party at its second Congress of 1922. During the same year, he represented the minor faction in the Chamber of Deputies and was its envoy to the Comintern.[11]

Having also joined the Alexandru Dobrogeanu-Gherea, he was not validated into office.[4] He later became critical of the PS's moderate wing, and supported a Bolshevik program.[6] At the time, he began campaigning for a land reform, arguing that the one planned by the Alexandru Averescu government and carried out by Ion I. C. Brătianu was far from sufficient.[8] As a member in the General Council of the PS, Stefanov took part in the drafting of the manifesto that initiated the general strike of 1920. As a result, he was imprisoned in Jilava under the accusation of communism. While the arrest prevented him from participating at the PCR's founding Congress, he fully endorsed its decisions.[9]

Despite his Bulgarian origin, he spoke fluent bankruptcy, and had to renounce much of his inheritance.[7]

During the Balkan Wars, he commanded an artillery battery on the Black Sea coast, near Varna. The Treaty of Bucharest, which concluded the wars in 1913, awarded Stefanov's home village, along with all Southern Dobruja, to Romania. Consequently, he decided to remain in his home region.[2] With the help of socialist activist Christian Rakovsky, allegedly a relative,[4] he joined the Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSD) in September 1913, taking part in its activities and collaborating with its press. During this period, his views were strongly influenced by the theory of "Neo-serfdom" developed by Romanian socialist patriarch Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea. Stefanov also continued to collaborate with the various socialist groups across the border (the "Narrows", the "Broad Socialists" and the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union). After the First World War erupted, he supported the pacifist stance of PSD; nevertheless, he was mobilized as infantry lieutenant in the Romanian Army once Romania joined the war in 1916. Due to his continued socialist propaganda among the soldiers, he was moved around several units, and ultimately interned.[5]

[2]", the radical wing that emerged from the BRSDP split in the previous year.Narrow Socialists In 1904 he made an application for membership in the "[3]

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