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Brunei-Muara District

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Title: Brunei-Muara District  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Pan-Borneo Highway, Legislative Council of Brunei, Temburong Bridge, Gadong Town, RTB1
Collection: Brunei-Muara District, Districts of Brunei
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Brunei-Muara District

Capital Bandar Seri Begawan
 • Brunei-Muara District 571 km2 (220 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Brunei-Muara District 279,924
 • Density 490/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Human Development Index

Brunei-Muara is the northern-most district (daerah in Malay) in Brunei. It is the smallest of Brunei's four districts in term of area but by far the most populous, containing over half the country's population. It is the most important and bustling district because the capital, Bandar Seri Begawan which is also the state capital, is the seat of the government ministries and departmental headquarters as well as the centre of business activities. Other major towns in the Brunei-Muara district include Muara town. The Brunei-Muara district houses the largest and deepest port in Brunei, the Muara Port.

The Brunei-Muara district is located in the north-east, bordering the South China Sea and Labuan (Malaysia) to the north, Brunei Bay to the east, Limbang, Sarawak (Malaysia) to the south and the Bruneian district of Tutong to the west.


  • Urban areas 1
  • Mukims in the Brunei Muara district 2
    • Bandar Seri Begawan city 2.1
  • Education 3
  • Economy 4
  • Infrastructure 5
  • Kampong Ayer (Water Village) 6
  • Islands within the Brunei-Muara district 7
  • References 8

Urban areas

About 80% of the district is highly urbanized, more than any other districts in Brunei. More than 296,500 people live in the bustling capital city area. Bandar Seri Begawan, Gadong, Jerudong, Berakas and other densely populated kampongs are the main urban region of the district.

Mukims in the Brunei Muara district

Each of the districts in Brunei are divided into mukims or counties/sub-districts and each mukims are further sub-divided into kampungs or villages. The Brunei-Muara district is govern by a District Officer, each mukims by a Penghulu or head of county and each villages by a Ketua Kampong or head of village. The current District Officer of the Brunei-Muara district is Dato Paduka Awang Haji Mohd. Yusop bin Bakar.

Originally, during the reign of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III, the Brunei-Muara district has 17 mukims where Berakas was not yet divided into two divisions and Kumbang Pasang was considered a mukim. However, during the reign of Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah, the Brunei-Muara district received a change. Mukim Berakas was divided into two parts; Berakas A and Berakas B due to rapid residential and infrastructural developments. While Kumbang Pasang become absorbed into Kianggeh.

Mukims of Brunei-Muara district

And as of July 2007, there are currently 18 mukims [1] (sub-district) or counties within the Brunei-Muara district as Mukim Gadong is now divided into two, Gadong A occupies the northern part and mukim Gadong B occupies the southern part. Of all the mukims, 6 of them are located in the water village and are therefore considered as water village mukims. All of the water village mukims are referred to as Kampong Ayer or the water village as a whole. Although they are a part of the water village collective, each mukims are identified as a separate division or entity for administrative reasons.

¹ - Water village mukims

Bandar Seri Begawan city

Bandar Seri Begawan city comprises the following mukims:

The following Mukims are collectively known as Kampong Ayer, the Water Village: Burong Pingai Ayer, Sungai Kebun, Sungai Kedayan, Peramu, Saba, Tamoi


Brunei-Muara District houses the country's 4 universities: Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Institut Teknologi Brunei, Universiti Islam Sultan Sharif Ali and Kolej Universiti Perguruan Ugama Seri Begawan.[2]

The district has the highest number of private and public schools, ranging from primary education to tertiary and higher education. There are two international schools in the district, namely Jerudong International School[3] and International School Brunei.[4] The country's leading science college, Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Science College is also located in this district.


Before the establishment of the oil and gas industry, Brunei-Muara was the center of the coal industry, which was first mined in 1837.[5] Until 1924, up to 650,000 tonnes of coal was produced.

Today the district is the largest commercial district within Brunei, with the busy commercial centers of Gadong and Kiulap within the city centre. Brunei's largest shopping mall, The Mall is located in Gadong Town, along with a number of hotels, such as the Sheraton Utama Hotel, Rizqun International Hotel and Empire Hotel and Country Club. Tourism is also one of the largest contributors to the district's GDP, since the district contains the most number of tourist attractions in the country.

All of the government ministry headquarters are located in this district, such as the Ministry of Finance Brunei. Some of the international corporations' local headquarters are located in the nation's capital, Bandar Seri Begawan, namely Royal Brunei Airlines, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, Bank Islam Brunei Darussalam and many other corporations and businesses.


Brunei-Muara District is the central hub for transport, with the Brunei International Airport and the Muara Port located in the district. The district has the Pan Borneo Highway passing through it, and is served by a network of public buses and taxis.

Kampong Ayer (Water Village)

The well known places in the district are Kampong Ayer (Water Villages) which have been in existence for centuries. According to the 1997 population estimates, about 30,000 people live in Kampong Ayer which is really made up of small villages linked together by more than 29,140 metres of foot-bridges. In order to preserve Kampong Ayer as Brunei Darussalam's most valuable heritage, the Government through the District Office has provided it with numerous facilities including food-bridges, concrete jetties, piped water, electricity supplies telephones, schools, mosques, clinics, police station and a marine fire station. All of the six water village mukims are collectively known as the water village (Kampong Ayer) but are identified as separate mukims for administrative purposes.

Islands within the Brunei-Muara district

There are several in-bay and coastal islands in the Brunei Bay belonging to the Brunei-Muara district. These islands include Pulau Muara Besar, Pulau Salar, Pulau Simangga Besar, Pulau Bedukang, Pulau Kaingaran, Pulau Chermin, Pulau Pepatan, Pulau Baru-Baru, Pulau Berbunut, Pulau Sibungor, Pulau Ranggu and Pulau Berambang. There is one man-made "island" off the coast of Mukim Serasa that is actually a spit turned into an "island" called Tanjong Pelumpong (Pelumpong Spit). There are two off-shore islands off the coast of the Brunei-Muara district in the South China Sea, Pulau Pungit, off the coast of Sengkurong and Pulau Pelong-Pelongan, off the coast of Mukim Serasa.


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Kolej Universiti Perguruan Ugama Seri Begawan". Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ | Brunei Resources: Coal in Brunei

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