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Bryansk

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Bryansk

Bryansk (English)
Брянск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -

View of the historical center of Bryansk

Location of Bryansk Oblast in Russia
Bryansk is located in Bryansk Oblast
Bryansk
Bryansk
Location of Bryansk in Bryansk Oblast
Coordinates:
Coat of arms
Flag
Anthem none[2]
City Day September 17
Administrative status (as of November 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Bryansk Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug (city of oblast significance)[3]
Administrative center of Bryansk Oblast,[1] Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug[3]
Municipal status (as of February 2014)
Urban okrug Bryansk Urban Okrug[4]
Administrative center of Bryansk Urban Okrug[4]
Head[5] Alexander Khlimankov[6]
Representative body Council of People's Deputies[5]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 415,721 inhabitants[7]
Rank in 2010 41st
Population (January 2015 est.) 426,225 inhabitants[8]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[9]
Founded 985[10] or 1146[11]
Postal code(s)[12] 241000–241002, 241004, 241006, 241007, 241010–241025, 241027–241031, 241033, 241035–241041, 241044, 241044, 241047, 241050, 241890, 241899, 241960–241967, 241970, 241980–241983, 241985, 241988, 241991
Dialing code(s) +7 4832
Official website

Bryansk (Russian: Брянск; IPA: ) is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located 379 kilometers (235 mi) southwest of Moscow. Population: 415,721 (2010 Census);[7] 431,526 (2002 Census);[13] 452,160 (1989 Census).[14]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Administrative and municipal status 2
  • Economy 3
    • Transportation 3.1
  • Notable people 4
  • Climate 5
  • Culture and education 6
  • Twin towns and sister cities 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
    • Notes 9.1
    • Sources 9.2
  • External links 10

History

The first written mention of Bryansk was in 1146, in the Hypatian Codex, as Debryansk (appears variously as Дъбряньск, Дьбряньск, and in other spellings).[11] Its name is derived from "дъбръ", a Slavic word for "ditch", "lowland", or "dense woodland";[15][16] the area was known for its dense woods, of which very little remains today. Local authorities and archaeologists, however, believe that the town had existed as early as 985[10] as a fortified settlement on the right bank of the Desna River.

Bryansk remained poorly attested until the Mongol invasion of Rus'. It was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov Rurikids. After Mikhail of Chernigov was murdered by the Mongols and his capital was destroyed, his son moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the Principality of Smolensk.

Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance in 1356 and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder. Until the end of the century, the town was contested between Jogaila, Vytautas, Švitrigaila, and Yury of Smolensk.

The Grand Duchy of Moscow conquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. The town was turned into a fortress which played a major role during the Time of Troubles. During the Time of Troubles, it was occupied by Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1610 and remained at Polish hands as part of Smolensk Voivodeship until the Truce of Deulino in 1634. Peter the Great incorporated Bryansk into Kiev Governorate, but Catherine the Great deemed it wise to transfer the town to Oryol Governorate in 1779. She also promulgated the town's coat of arms.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the economy of Bryansk, which had become a regional trading center, was based on the Svenskaya fair, the largest in European Russia. The fair was held annually under the auspices of the Svensky Monastery. After cannon and ammunition started to be manufactured there for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1783, Bryansk evolved from a regional market town into an important industrial center for metallurgy and textiles. The city's population exceeded 30,000 by 1917.[17]

View of May Day at Gagarin Boulevard in 1920

In 1918, the Belarusian People's Republic claimed Bryansk, but the town was taken by Bolshevik forces in 1919. During World War II, Bryansk was occupied by the Germans (from October 6, 1941 to September 17, 1943) and the city was heavily damaged by fighting. About 60,000 Soviet partisans were active in and around Bryansk, inflicting heavy losses on the German army. In 1944, soon after its liberation, Bryansk became the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast.

Administrative and municipal status

Bryansk is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with three work settlements (Belye Berega, Bolshoye Polpino, and Raditsa-Krylovka), incorporated separately as Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug is incorporated as Bryansk Urban Okrug.[4]

Economy

Today's Bryansk is an important center for steel and machinery manufacturing, and is home to many large factories. The main industries are machine building, metalworking, chemical, electrical equipment, electronics, wood, textile and food industries, locomotives, diesel engines, freight cars, motor graders, pavers and other road equipment, agricultural equipment, construction materials, and garments.

Transportation

Bryansk-I, May 2010

Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Bryansk and Moscow.[18] The city has railway stations: Bryansk Orlovsky and Bryansk-Lgovskiy (Bryansk Bryansk -I and -II, respectively), Ordzhonikidzegrad; Street Bus Station and Peresvet Bezhitsa bus station. 14 kilometers west of the city lies the Bryansk International Airport.

Passenger traffic carried by bus (more than 1,400 cars on 54 permanent urban routes), trolley on 10 regular routes, uses (36 routes), as well as commuter trains and railcars. The cost of public transport (trolley buses) is 12 rubles, and buses, 14 rubles (as of May 2013).

Notable people

Russian cosmonaut Viktor Afanasyev, shot put athlete Svetlana Krivelyova, sculptor and architect Naum Gabo, and classical pianist Valentina Igoshina were born in Bryansk. Bulgarian communist leader Stanke Dimitrov (Marek) died in an aviation accident near the city. The writer Leonid Dobychin spent most of his adult years there.

Climate

Bryansk has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb).

Climate data for Bryansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
9.9
(49.8)
20.2
(68.4)
28.3
(82.9)
32.3
(90.1)
34.9
(94.8)
37.7
(99.9)
38.4
(101.1)
30.7
(87.3)
24.8
(76.6)
17.1
(62.8)
9.9
(49.8)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−3.0
(26.6)
2.8
(37)
12.0
(53.6)
19.0
(66.2)
22.1
(71.8)
23.9
(75)
22.7
(72.9)
16.5
(61.7)
9.7
(49.5)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
10.1
(50.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.0
(21.2)
−6.1
(21)
−0.8
(30.6)
7.2
(45)
13.7
(56.7)
17.1
(62.8)
18.9
(66)
17.5
(63.5)
11.9
(53.4)
6.1
(43)
−0.7
(30.7)
−4.9
(23.2)
6.2
(43.2)
Average low °C (°F) −8.6
(16.5)
−9.1
(15.6)
−4.2
(24.4)
3.0
(37.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.3
(54.1)
14.2
(57.6)
12.9
(55.2)
7.9
(46.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.8
(27)
−7.3
(18.9)
2.5
(36.5)
Record low °C (°F) −41.8
(−43.2)
−34.9
(−30.8)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−4.2
(24.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
2.2
(36)
0.1
(32.2)
−5.2
(22.6)
−13.0
(8.6)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−41.8
(−43.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.81)
41
(1.61)
38
(1.5)
43
(1.69)
57
(2.24)
80
(3.15)
87
(3.43)
69
(2.72)
63
(2.48)
56
(2.2)
53
(2.09)
50
(1.97)
683
(26.89)
Average rainy days 7 6 8 14 16 18 17 14 16 16 14 10 156
Average snowy days 23 21 14 4 0.4 0 0 0 0.4 4 14 22 103
Average relative humidity (%) 85 82 76 68 65 69 71 72 77 81 87 87 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 18.6 58.8 133.3 180.0 282.1 264.0 294.5 260.4 171.0 83.7 27.0 21.7 1,795.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[19]
Source #2: Climatebase (sun, 1949–2011)[20]

Culture and education

Monument of Kurgan Bessmertiya

Bryansk has two universities, three theaters, and a technical academy.

Twin towns and sister cities

Bryansk is twinned with:

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #13-Z
  2. ^ Article 6 of the Charter of Bryansk states that the symbols of the oblast include a flag and a coat of arms, but not an anthem.
  3. ^ a b Law #69-Z
  4. ^ a b c Law #3-Z
  5. ^ a b Charter of Bryansk, Article 24
  6. ^ Official website of Bryansk Council of People's Deputies. Alexander Anatolyevich Khlimankov, Head of the City of Bryansk
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ Bryansk Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Предварительная оценка численности населения Брянской области по городским округам и муниципальным районам на 1 января 2015 года (Russian)
  9. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^ a b Hypatian Codex
  12. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Черных П. Я.: Историко-этимологический словарь современного русского языка. Москва, Русский язык-Медиа, 2004
  16. ^ Смолицкая Г. П.: Топонимический словарь Центральной России. Москва, Армада-пресс, 2002
  17. ^ История Брянска
  18. ^ (Russian)Train Station in Bryansk
  19. ^
  20. ^

Sources

  • Брянский городской Совет народных депутатов. 30 ноября 2005 г. «Устав города Брянска», в ред. Решения №173 от 29 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав города Брянска». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Брянск", №23, 7 декабря 2005 г. (Bryansk City Council of People's Deputies. November 30, 2005 Charter of the City of Bryansk, as amended by the Decision #173 of April 29, 2015 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the City of Bryansk. Effective as of after the official publication.).
  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №13-З от 5 июня 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Брянской области», в ред. Закона №4-З от 5 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Брянской области». Опубликован: "Брянский рабочий", №119, 24 июня 1997 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #13-Z of June 5, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #4-Z of February 5, 2014 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Bryansk Oblast. ).
  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №69-З от 2 ноября 2012 г. «Об образовании городских административных округов, поселковых административных округов, сельских административных округов, установлении границ, наименований и административных центров административных округов в Брянской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2013 г. Опубликован: Информационный бюллетень "Официальная Брянщина", №16, 6 ноября 2012 г.. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #69-Z of November 2, 2002 On the Establishment of Urban Administrative Okrugs, Settlement Administrative Okrugs, Rural Administrative Okrugs, on Establishing Borders, Names, and Administrative Centers of the Administrative Okrugs of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2013.).
  • Брянская областная Дума. Закон №3-З от 9 марта 2005 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований статусом статусом городского округа, муниципального района, городского поселения, сельского поселения и установлении границ муниципальных образований в Брянской области», в ред. Закона №75-З от 28 сентября 2015 г. «Об изменении статуса населённого пункта посёлок Красный Ятвиж Клетнянского района Брянской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Брянская неделя", №13, 8 апреля 2005 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #3-Z of March 9, 2005 On Granting the Municipal Formations the Status of Urban Okrug, Municipal District, Urban Settlement, Rural Settlement and on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #75-Z of September 28, 2015 On Changing the Status of the Inhabited Locality the Settlement of Krasny Yatvizh in Kletnyansky District of Bryansk Oblast. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication.).

External links

  • Official website of Bryansk City Administration (Russian)
  • Official website of the Bryansk Council of People's Deputies (Russian)
  • Educational portal of Bryansk (Russian)
  • Encyclopaedia WikiBryansk (Russian)
  • The murder of the Jews of Bryansk during World War II, at Yad Vashem website.
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