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Bugsy Siegel

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Bugsy Siegel

Benjamin Siegel
Mugshot of Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, April 12, 1928
Born Benjamin Siegel[1][2]
(1906-02-28)February 28, 1906
Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Died June 20, 1947(1947-06-20) (aged 41)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Cause of death Homicide
Resting place Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Residence Los Angeles, California
Other names Benny, Bug, Bugs, Bugsy
Ethnicity Jewish
Occupation Racketeer, gangster, casino owner
Parent(s) Max Siegel
Jennie Riechenthal[1]
Relatives See
Signature

Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel (February 28, 1906[1] – June 20, 1947) was a Jewish American mobster. Siegel was known as one of the most "infamous and feared gangsters of his day".[3] Described as handsome and charismatic, he became one of the first front-page-celebrity gangsters.[4] He was also a driving force behind the development of the Las Vegas Strip.[5] Siegel was not only influential within the Jewish mob but, like his friend and fellow gangster Meyer Lansky, he also held significant influence within the Italian-American Mafia and the largely Italian-Jewish National Crime Syndicate.

Siegel was one of the founders and leaders of Murder, Incorporated[6] and became a bootlegger during Prohibition. After Prohibition was repealed in 1933, he turned to gambling. In 1936, he left New York and moved to California.[7] In 1939, Siegel was tried for the murder of fellow mobster Harry Greenberg. Siegel was acquitted in 1942.

Siegel traveled to Las Vegas, Nevada where he handled and financed some of the original casinos.[8] He assisted developer William Wilkerson's Flamingo Hotel after Wilkerson ran out of funds.[9] Siegel took over the project and managed the final stages of construction. The Flamingo opened on December 26, 1946 to poor reception and soon closed. It reopened in March 1947 with a finished hotel. Three months later, on June 20, 1947, Siegel was shot dead at the Beverly Hills home of his girlfriend, Virginia Hill.

Early life

Benjamin Siegel[1][2] was born on February 28, 1906 in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, to a poor Jewish family from Letychiv,[10] Podolia Governorate of the Russian Empire, in modern Ukraine. However, other sources[11][12] state that his family came from Austria.[1] His parents, Max and Jennie, constantly worked for meager wages. Siegel, the second of five children, vowed that he would rise above that life.[14] As a boy, Siegel dropped out of school and joined a gang on Lafayette Street on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. He committed mainly thefts, until he met Moe Sedway. With Sedway, Siegel developed a protection racket where pushcart merchants were forced to pay him a dollar or he would incinerate their merchandise.[14][15] Siegel had a criminal record that included armed robbery, rape and murder dating back to his teenage years.[16]

Bugs and Meyer Mob

During adolescence, Siegel befriended Italians and Irish. The first person he recruited for his gang was Ben Siegel.[14][17]

Siegel became a bootlegger[18] and was involved in bootlegging within several major East Coast cities. He also worked as the mob's hitman, whom Lansky would hire out to other crime families.[19] The two formed the Bugs and Meyer Mob, which handled contracts for the various bootleg gangs operating in New York and New Jersey – doing so almost a decade before Murder, Inc. was formed. The gang kept themselves busy hijacking the liquor cargoes of rival outfits.[20] The Bugs and Meyer mob was known to be responsible for the killing and removal of several rival gangdom figures.[21] Siegel's gang mates included Abner "Longie" Zwillman, Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, and Lansky's brother, Jake; Joseph "Doc" Stacher, another member of the Bugs and Meyer Mob, recalled to Lansky biographers that Siegel was fearless and saved his friends' lives as the mob moved into bootlegging:

He was also a boyhood friend to Al Capone; when there was a warrant for Capone's arrest on a murder charge, Siegel allowed him to hide out with an aunt.[23] Siegel first smoked opium during his youth and was involved in the drug trade.[24] By age 21, Siegel was making money and flaunted it. He was regarded as handsome with blue eyes[25] and was known to be charismatic and likeable.[26] He bought an apartment at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel and a Tudor home in Scarsdale. He wore flashy clothes and participated in the night life of New York City.[12][27]

In 1929, Lansky and Siegel attended the Mafia crime families. At the conference, Siegel stated, "The yids and the dagos will no longer fight each other."

Marriage and family

On January 28, 1929, Siegel married Esta Krakower, his childhood sweetheart and sister of contract killer Whitey Krakower.[29] They had two daughters.[5] Siegel had a reputation as a womanizer and the marriage ended in 1946.[30][31] His wife moved with their teenage daughters to New York.

Murder, Incorporated

By the late 1920s, Lansky and Siegel had ties to [36]

In 1931, following Maranzano's death, Luciano and Lansky formed the [6][37] The Commission was established for dividing Mafia territories and preventing future wars.[6] With his associates, Siegel formed Murder, Incorporated. After Siegel and Lansky moved on, control over Murder, Inc. was ceded to Buchalter and Anastasia.[20] Siegel continued working as a hitman[38] His only conviction was in Miami. On February 28, 1932, he was arrested for gambling and vagrancy, and, from a roll of bills, paid a $100 fine.[5]

During this period, Siegel had a disagreement with associates of Waxey Gordon, the Fabrizzo brothers.[39] Gordon had hired the Fabrizzo brothers from prison after Lansky and Siegel gave the IRS information about Gordon's tax evasion. It led to Gordon's imprisonment in 1933.[21][40]

Siegel hunted down the Fabrizzos, killing them after their assassination attempt on Lansky as well as Siegel himself.[40] After the deaths of his two brothers, Tony Fabrizzo began writing a memoir and gave it to an attorney. One of the longest chapters was to be a section on the nationwide kill-for-hire squad led by Siegel. The mob discovered Fabrizzo's plans before he could execute it.[41] In 1932, Siegel checked into a hospital and later that night snuck out. Siegel and two accomplices approached Fabrizzo's house and, posing as detectives to lure him outside, gunned him down.[40][42] According to hospital records, Siegel's alibi for that night was that he had checked into a hospital.[41] In 1935, Siegel assisted in Luciano's alliance with Dutch Schultz and killed rival loan sharks Louis "Pretty" Amberg and Joseph Amberg.[43][44]

California

Siegel had learned from his associates that he was in danger.[45] His hospital alibi had become questionable and his enemies wanted him dead.[46] In the late 1930s, the Chicago Outfit's Trans-America Wire service.[30][53]

By 1942, $500,000 a day was coming from the syndicate's bookmaking wire operations.[30][52] In 1946, because of problems with Siegel, the Chicago Outfit took over the Continental Press and gave the percentage of the racing wire to Jack Dragna, infuriating Siegel.[53][54] Despite his complications with the wire services, Siegel controlled several offshore casinos[55] and a major prostitution ring.[19] He also maintained relationships with politicians, businessmen, attorneys, accountants, and lobbyists who fronted for him.[56]

Hollywood

In Clark Gable, Gary Cooper and Cary Grant,[38][57] as well as studio executives Louis B. Mayer and Jack L. Warner.[58] Actress Jean Harlow was a friend of Siegel and godmother to his daughter Millicent. Siegel led an extravagant life. He bought real estate, and threw lavish parties at his Beverly Hills home.[30] He gained admiration from young celebrities, including Tony Curtis,[59] Phil Silvers, and Frank Sinatra.[60] Siegel had several relationships with actresses, including socialite Dorothy DiFrasso, the wife of an Italian count. The alliance with the countess took Siegel to Italy in 1938,[61] where he met Benito Mussolini, to whom Siegel tried to sell weapons. Likewise he met there Nazis leaders Hermann Göring and Joseph Goebbels, to whom he took an instant dislike and later offered to kill them.[29][62][63] He relented because of the countess's anxious pleas.[57]

In Hollywood, Siegel worked with the crime syndicate to form illegal rackets.[45] He devised a plan of extorting movie studios; he would take over local unions (the Screen Extras Guild and the Los Angeles Teamsters) and stage strikes to force studios to pay him off, so that unions would start working again.[53] He borrowed money from celebrities and didn't pay them back, knowing that they would never ask him for the money.[64][65] During his first year in Hollywood, he received more than $400,000 in loans from movie stars.[45]

Greenberg murder and trial

On November 22, 1939, Siegel, Whitey Krakower, Frankie Carbo and Albert Tannenbaum killed Harry "Big Greenie" Greenberg outside his apartment. Greenberg had threatened to become a police informant,[66] and Lepke Buchalter, boss of Murder, Inc., ordered his killing.[67]

Mack Gray testified on Siegel's behalf, and in late 1944, Siegel was acquitted.[75]

Las Vegas

Bugsy's original Flamingo Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, 1947.
Siegel wanted to be a legitimate businessman, and in 1945, he saw an opportunity with William R. Wilkerson's Flamingo Hotel.[76] Las Vegas gave Siegel his second opportunity to reinvent himself. In the 1930s, Siegel had traveled to Southern Nevada with Meyer Lansky's lieutenant Moe Sedway on Lansky's orders to explore expanding operations. There were opportunities in providing illicit services to crews constructing the Hoover Dam. Lansky had turned the desert over to Siegel, but Siegel turned it over to Moe Sedway and left for Hollywood.[77][78]

In the mid-1940s, Siegel was lining things up in Las Vegas while his lieutenants worked on a business policy to secure all gambling in Los Angeles.[79] In May 1946, Siegel decided the agreement with Wilkerson had to be altered to give him control of the Flamingo.[80] With the Flamingo, Siegel would supply the gambling, the best liquor and food, and the biggest entertainers at reasonable prices. He believed these attractions would lure not only the high rollers, but thousands of vacationers willing to lose $50 or $100.[55] William Wilkerson was eventually coerced into selling all stakes in the Flamingo under the threat of death, and went into hiding in Paris for a time.[81] From this point the Flamingo became syndicate-run.[82]

Las Vegas' beginning

Siegel began a spending spree. He demanded the finest building that money could buy at a time of postwar shortages. As costs soared, Siegel's checks began bouncing. By October 1946, the costs were above $4 million.[83] In 1947, the Flamingo cost was over $6 million (around $60 million in today's money[84]).[85] By late November, the work was nearly finished.[86]

According to later reports by local observers, Siegel's "maniacal chest-puffing" set the pattern for several generations of notable casino moguls.[19] Siegel's violent reputation didn't help his situation. After he boasted one day that he'd personally killed some men, he saw the panicked look on the face of head contractor Del Webb and reassured him: "Del, don't worry, we only kill each other."[87]

Other associates portrayed Siegel in a different aspect; Siegel as an intense character who was not without a charitable side, including his donations for the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund.[19] Lou Wiener Jr., Siegel's Las Vegas attorney, described him as "very well liked" and that he was "good to people".[19]

Defiance and devastation

Problems with the Trans-America Wire service had cleared up in Nevada and Arizona, but in California, Siegel refused to report business.[79] He later announced to his colleagues that he was running the California syndicate by himself and that he would return the loans in his "own good time". Despite his defiance to the mob bosses they were patient with Siegel because he had always proven to be a valuable man.[88]

The Flamingo opened on December 26, 1946. The casino, lounge, theater, and restaurant were finished.[89] Although locals attended the opening, few celebrities materialized. A handful drove in from Los Angeles despite bad weather. Some celebrities present were Sonny Tufts, Brian Donlevy, and Charles Coburn. They were welcomed by construction noise and a lobby draped with drop cloths. The desert's first air conditioning collapsed regularly. While gambling tables were operating, the luxury rooms that would have served as the lure for people to stay and gamble were not ready. As word of the losses made their way to Siegel during the evening, he began to become irate and verbally abusive, throwing out at least one family.[90] After two weeks the Flamingo's gaming tables were $275,000 in the red and the entire operation shut down in late January 1947.[91]

After being granted a second chance, Siegel cracked down and did everything possible to turn the Flamingo into a success by making renovations and obtaining good [19]

Death

Siegel's memorial plaque in the Bialystoker Synagogue.[95]

On the night of June 20, 1947, as Siegel sat with his associate Allen Smiley in Virginia Hill's Beverly Hills home reading the Los Angeles Times, an assailant fired at him through the window with a .30 caliber military M1 carbine, hitting him many times, including twice in the head.[19] No one was charged with the murder, and the crime remains officially unsolved.[5]

One theory posits that Siegel's death was the result of his excessive spending and possible theft of money from the mob.[96][97] In 1946, a meeting was held with the "board of directors" of the syndicate in Havana, Cuba, so that Luciano, exiled in Sicily, could attend and participate. A contract on Siegel's life was the conclusion.[98] According to Doc Stacher, Lansky reluctantly agreed to the decision.[99] Another theory[100] is that Siegel was shot to death preemptively by Mathew "Moose" Pandza, the lover of Siegel's Las Vegas associate Moe Sedway's wife, Bee, who went to Pandza after learning that Siegel was threatening to kill her husband. Siegel apparently had grown increasingly resentful of the control Sedway, at mob behest, was exerting over Siegel's finances and planned to do away with Sedway.[101]

Although descriptions said that Siegel was shot in the eye, he was actually hit twice on the right side of his head. The death scene and postmortem photographs show that one shot penetrated his right cheek and exited through the left side of his neck; the other struck the right bridge of his nose where it met the right eye socket. The pressure created by the bullet passing through Siegel's skull blew his left eye out of its socket. A Los Angeles' Coroner's Report (#37448) states the cause of death as cerebral hemorrhage. His death certificate (Registrar's #816192) states the manner of death as a homicide and the cause as "Gunshot Wounds of the head."[102]

Though as noted, Siegel was not shot exactly through the eye (the eyeball would have been destroyed if this had been the case), the bullet-through-the-eye style of killing nevertheless became popular in Mafia lore and in movies, and was called the "Moe Greene special"[103] after the character Moe Greene—based on Siegel—was killed in this manner in The Godfather.

Siegel was hit by several other bullets including shots through his lungs.[104] According to Florabel Muir, "Four of the nine shots fired that night destroyed a white marble statue of Bacchus on a grand piano, and then lodged in the far wall."

The day after Siegel's death, the [105] Although Siegel's murder occurred in Beverly Hills, his death thrust Las Vegas into the national spotlight as photographs of his lifeless body were published in newspapers throughout the country.[30] The day after Siegel's murder, David Berman and his Las Vegas mob associates, Gus Greenbaum and Moe Sedway, walked into the Flamingo and took over operation of the hotel and casino.[106]

Memorial

Siegel's memorial outside the wedding chapel at the Flamingo.
In the Bialystoker Synagogue on New York's Lower East Side, Siegel is memorialized by a Yahrtzeit (remembrance) plaque that marks his death date so mourners can say Kaddish for the anniversary. Siegel's plaque is below Max Siegel's, his father, who died two months before his son.

On the property at the Flamingo Las Vegas, between the pool and a wedding chapel, is a memorial plaque to Siegel.[107] Siegel was interred in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery in Hollywood, California.

In popular culture

  • Siegel was the basis for the Moe Greene character in Mario Puzo's novel The Godfather (1969). In the 1972 film adaptation, he is portrayed by Alex Rocco.
  • Sergio Leone's film Once Upon a Time in America (1984) is loosely based on the lives of Siegel and Lansky.[108]
  • In the movie Atlantic City the real life mobsters and gangsters that central character Lou (Burt Lancaster) said he knew or had worked for were Dutch Schultz, Meyer Lansky, Bugsy Siegel and Al Capone.
  • Bugsy (1991) is a semi-fictional biography of Siegel, featuring Warren Beatty as the mobster.
  • The 1991 crime drama Mobsters, depicting the rise of The Commission, features Richard Grieco as Siegel.
  • The Marrying Man (1991) has Armand Assante playing the role of Bugsy.
  • Siegel is a minor character in the James Ellroy novel The Black Dahlia.
  • Tim Powers imagined Siegel as a modern-day Fisher King in his novel Last Call (1992).
  • He is portrayed by Michael Zegen in the HBO series Boardwalk Empire.
  • He is a central character in Frank Darabont's television series Mob City, portrayed by Edward Burns.
  • In a parallel universe featured in the Sliders Season Four episode "Way Out West", Siegel's grandson Ben "Bugsy" Siegel III (Jay Acovone) planned to turn Las Vegas into a Mecca for gamblers in the same manner as his grandfather did on Earth Prime. The universe in question was approximately 150 years behind Earth Prime in terms of technology and the United States resembled the Wild West into the late 1990s.
  • He is portrayed by Jonathan Stewart in AMC's series The Making of the Mob: New York, a docudrama focusing on the history of the mob with the first season about Charlie "Lucky" Luciano's life story.
  • Siegel is used as inspiration for Fallout: New Vegas's Benny, the owner of The Tops casino in New Vegas and the Courier's main target for the first half of the main questline. The player is later given the option to either kill him at two different times or just save him.
  • In the Stephen Hunter novel Hot Spings, Siegel plays a major role. He is a partner of crime boss Owney Maddox and gets into a physical confrontation with former Marine Sergeant turned Detective Earl Swagger after Swagger lights Virginia Hill's cigarette. Swagger attempts to avoid confrontation with Siegel but beats him in a fist fight earning his wrath. Later Swagger's former subordinate-turned-CIA agent Frenchy Short assassinates Siegel with an M1 carbine paralleling the real life murder.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ According to an FBI report, Siegel's reputation of individuals fearing him was acknowledged because "he thought nothing of grabbing a gun and shooting someone when they crossed him".
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ a b c d (subscription required)
  6. ^ a b c
  7. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, p. 268.
  8. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, pp. 284–285.
  9. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). p. 141
  10. ^ Chapin, David A. and Weinstock, Ben, The Road from Letichev: The history and culture of a forgotten Jewish community in Eastern Europe, Volume 2. ISBN 0-595-00667-1 iUniverse, Lincoln, NE, 2000.
  11. ^ "Mobsters: Bugsy Siegel". 2 minutes in. Broadcast: April 3, 2007, The Biography Channel.
  12. ^ a b
  13. ^ "United States Census, 1910". FamilySearch. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  14. ^ a b c d
  15. ^
  16. ^ Gribben, Mark. "Bugsy Siegel – The Sociopath" TruTv. Crime Library. Retrieved June 1, 2012
  17. ^ Dennis Eisenberg; Uri Dan; Eli Landau. Meyer Lansky: mogul of the mob. (1979). pp. 55–56
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b c d e f g
  20. ^ a b Sifakis, The Mafia Encyclopedia. (2005). p. 68
  21. ^ a b
  22. ^ Dennis Eisenberg; Uri Dan; Eli Landau. Meyer Lansky: mogul of the mob. (1979). p. 57
  23. ^ Tereba 2012, pp. 24–25.
  24. ^ Tereba 2012, pp. 172–173.
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h
  31. ^ Tereba 2012, pp. 76–77.
  32. ^ Sifakis, The Mafia Encyclopedia. (2005). p. 304
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^ Dennis Eisenberg; Uri Dan; Eli Landau. Meyer Lansky: mogul of the mob. 1979. pp. 140–141
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ a b c Sifakis, The Mafia Encyclopedia. (2005). p. 417
  39. ^ Their last names are spelled Frabrazzo in different sources. See Gribben, Mark. "Bedrest". Crime Library.
  40. ^ a b c
  41. ^ a b Turkus & Feder 2003, p. 264.
  42. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, pp. 264–265.
  43. ^
  44. ^ Jennings, We Only Kill Each Other. (1992). p. 35
  45. ^ a b c d
  46. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, pp. 267–268.
  47. ^
  48. ^ Siler, Bob. "Walking In Their Footsteps – A Look At The Mob In Los Angeles". AmericanMafia.com. (September 2005). Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  49. ^ Sifakis, The Mafia Encyclopedia. (2005). p. 156
  50. ^ Tereba 2012, pp. 37–38.
  51. ^
  52. ^ a b c d
  53. ^ a b c
  54. ^
  55. ^ a b
  56. ^ Tereba 2012, p. 63.
  57. ^ a b
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^ Sifakis, The Mafia Encyclopedia. (2005). pp. 417–418
  63. ^
  64. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, p. 270.
  65. ^ Jennings, We Only Kill Each Other. (1992). pp. 43–46
  66. ^ (subscription required)
  67. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, p. 275.
  68. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, p. 280.
  69. ^ "District Attorney William O'Dwyer of Brooklyn left Friday afternoon by train for Los Angeles to confer with the prosecutor's office there concerning developments in the case of Benjamin (Bug) Siegel, West Coast racketeer chieftain" (subscription required)
  70. ^ (subscription required)
  71. ^ Jennings, We Only Kill Each Other. (1992). pp. 95–97
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^ a b Giesler, Jerry; Martin, Pete (December 26, 1959). "I Defend a Mobster". The Saturday Evening Post. p. 55
  75. ^
  76. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). p. 62
  77. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). p. 74
  78. ^ Griffin, The Battle for Las Vegas: The Law Vs. the Mob. (2006). pp. 6–7
  79. ^ a b Turkus & Feder 2003, p. 288.
  80. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). p. 80
  81. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). p. 98
  82. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). p. 81
  83. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). pp. 83–84
  84. ^ Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved November 7, 2012
  85. ^ Jennings, We Only Kill Each Other. (1992). p. 6
  86. ^ Jennings, We Only Kill Each Other. (1992). pp. 169–171
  87. ^ Jennings, We Only Kill Each Other. (1992). p. 17
  88. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, p. 289.
  89. ^ Griffin, The Battle for Las Vegas: The Law Vs. the Mob. (2006). pp. 9–10
  90. ^ Griffin, The Battle for Las Vegas: The Law Vs. the Mob. (2006). p. 10
  91. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). pp. 99–104
  92. ^ Wilkerson III, The Man Who Invented Las Vegas. (2000). p. 106
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^ On the plaques above see the name Max Siegel, Siegel's father, whose Hebrew name is "Mordechai Dov ben Reb (son of) Beirush HaLevi" (from the Hebraic tribe of the Levites) and the one for Siegel, whose Hebrew name is "Bairush HaLevi ben Reb Mordechai Dov HaLevi;" from this we see that Bugsy was named for his grandfather, Dov, meaning Bear (Bairush is the Yiddish for Dov), which was Americanized to Benjamin. All fathers are called Reb as an honorific on memorial plaques; Reb means "teacher" as in Rabbi.
  96. ^
  97. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, p. 290.
  98. ^ Turkus & Feder 2003, pp. 290–291.
  99. ^ Dennis Eisenberg; Uri Dan; Eli Landau. Meyer Lansky: mogul of the mob. (1979). pp. 238–241
  100. ^ Bugsy Siegel was shot dead by truck driver lover of his best friend's wife: Mobster's murder solved after 67 years
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^
  104. ^
  105. ^ Funerals of the Infamous, retrieved October 15, 2011
  106. ^
  107. ^
  108. ^

Notes

  1. ^ On the 1910 New York Census, both of Siegel's parents listed their birthplaces as Austria.[13]

Works cited

Article

Further reading

  • Almog, Oz, Kosher Nostra Jüdische Gangster in Amerika, 1890–1980 ; Jüdischen Museum der Stadt Wien ; 2003, Text Oz Almog, Erich Metz, ISBN 3-901398-33-3

External links

  • Bugsysiegel.net, various information including a copy of Siegel's death certificate
  • FBI files on Siegel (2,421 pages, heavily redacted) From the FBI Freedom of Information Act.
  • Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel Profile and NY Times Article at J-Grit: The Internet Index of Tough Jews
  • PBS American Experience
  • Bugsy Siegel memorial in Las Vegas
  • Bugsy Siegel Biography
  • Bugsy Siegel at the Crime Library
  • Digitized photograph from the Lloyd Sealy Library Digital Collections: Identification photograph of Bugsy Siegel and others c.1932 (upper half removed)
Business positions
Preceded by
Murder, Incorporated
Boss

1931
Succeeded by
Lepke Buchalter
Preceded by
Las Vegas crime family
Boss

1933–1947
Succeeded by
Mickey Cohen
Preceded by
William R. Wilkerson
Flamingo Hotel
Owner

1946–1947
Succeeded by
Moe Sedway
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