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Bugyō

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Title: Bugyō  
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Subject: Gusoku-bugyō, Kinzan-bugyō, Haneda bugyō, Kura-bugyō, Kyoto machi-bugyō
Collection: Government of Feudal Japan, Officials of the Tokugawa Shogunate
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Bugyō

Bugyō (奉行), often translated as "commissioner" or "magistrate" or "governor," was a title assigned to samurai officials of the Tokugawa government in feudal Japan; other terms would be added to the title to describe more specifically a given commissioner's tasks or jurisdiction.

Contents

  • Pre-Edo period 1
  • Edo period 2
    • List 2.1
  • Meiji period 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5

Pre-Edo period

In the Heian period (794–1185), the post or title of bugyō would be applied only to a set task; once that task was complete, the officer would cease to be called bugyō. However, in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and later, continuing through the end of the Edo period (1603–1868), posts and title came to be created on a more permanent basis.[1] Over time, there came to be 36 bugyō in the Kamakura bureaucracy.[2]

In 1434, Ashikaga Yoshinori established the Tosen-bugyō to regulate foreign affairs.[1]

In 1587, a Japanese invading army occupied Seoul; and one of Hideyoshi's first acts was to create a bugyō for the city, replicating a familiar pattern in an unfamiliar setting.[3]

Edo period

During the Edo period, the numbers of bugyō reached its largest extent. The bureaucracy of the Togukawa shogunate expanded on an ad hoc basis, responding to perceived needs and changing circumstances.

List

  • Edo machi-bugyō (江戸町奉行) – Magistrates or municipal administrators of Edo.[4]
  • Fushin-bugyō (普請奉行) – Superintendents of Public Works.[6]
  • Gaikoku-bugyō (外国奉行) – Commissioners in charge of trade and diplomatic relations with foreign countries after 1858.[7]
  • Gunkan-bugyō (軍鑑奉行) – Commissioners in charge of naval matters (post-1859).[7]
  • Gusoku-bugyō (具足奉行) – Commissioners in charge of supplying the shogunal armies.
    • Bugu-bugyō (武具奉行) – Commissioners in charge of supplying the shogunal armies (post-1863), replaced Gusoku-bugyō.
  • Hakodate bugyō (箱館奉行) – Overseers of the port of Hakodate and neighboring territory of Ezo.[7]
  • Haneda bugyō (羽田奉行) – Overseers of the port of Haneda; commissioners of coastal defenses near Edo (post-1853).[8]
  • Hyōgo bugyō (兵庫奉行) – Overseers of the port of Hyōgo (post-1864).[9]
  • Jisha-bugyō (寺社奉行) – Ministers or administrators for religious affairs; overseers of the country's temples and shrines.[10]
  • Jiwari-bugyō (地割奉行)- Commissioners of surveys and surveying.[11]
  • Kanagawa bugyō (神奈川奉行) – Overseers of the port of Kanagawa (post-1859).[12]
  • Kanjō-bugyō (勘定奉行) – Ministers or administrators for shogunal finance (post-1787).[13]
    • Gundai – Deputies.[6]
    • Daikan (代官)- Assistant deputies.[6]
    • Kane-bugyō (金奉行) – Superintendents of the Treasury.
    • Kura-bugyō (倉庫奉行) – Superintendents of Cereal Stores.[6]
    • Kinza (金座) – Gold za or monopoly office (post-1595).[14]
    • Ginza (銀座) – Silver za or monopoly office (post-1598).[14]
    • Dōza (銅座) – Copper za or monopoly office (post-1636)[14] and (1701–1712, 1738–1746, 1766–1768).[15]
    • Shuza (朱座) – Cinnabar za or monopoly office (post-1609).[16]
  • Kanjō-gimmiyaku – Comptrollers of Finance.[6]
  • Kantō gundai – Kantō deputies.[6]
  • Kinzan-bugyō (金山奉行) – Commissioners of mines.[17]
  • Kyoto shoshidai (京都所司代) -- Shogunal representatives at Kyoto.[18]
  • Machi-bugyō (町奉行) – Magistrates or municipal administrators in shogunal cities: Edo, Kyoto, Nagasaki, Nara, Nikkō, and Osaka.[18]
  • Nagasaki bugyō (長崎奉行) – Governor of Nagasaki.[22]
  • Niigata bugyō (新潟奉行) – Overseers of the port of Niigata.
  • Nikkō bugyō (日光奉行) – Overseers of Nikkō.[23]
  • Osaka jōdai (大阪城代) – Overseers of Osaka Castle.[24]
  • Rōya-bugyō (牢屋奉行) – Commissioners of the shogunal prison.[25]
  • Sado bugyō (佐渡奉行) – Overseers of the island of Sado.[26]
  • Sakuji-bugyō (作事奉行) – Commissioners of works (post-1632).[27]
  • Shimoda bugyō (下田奉行) – Overseers of the port of Shimoda.[28]
  • Sunpu jōdai (駿府城代) – Overseers of Sunpu Castle.[24]
  • Uraga bugyō (浦賀奉行) – Overseers of the port of Uraga.[29]
  • Yamada bugyō (山田奉行) -- Representatives of the shogunate at Ise.[30]

Meiji period

In the early years of the Meiji Restoration, the offices and conventional practices remained in place during the initial period when nothing else had been contrived to replace the existing Tokugawa system. For example, the commander-in-chief of artillery under the early Meiji government was called the Hohei-bugyō.[31]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Kinihara, Misako. (唐船奉行の成立 : 足利義教による飯尾貞連の登用)The Establishment of the Tosen-bugyō in the Reign of Ashikaga Yoshinori, Tokyo Woman's Christian University. Essays and S.tudies. Abstract.
  2. ^ Brinkley, Frank et al. (1915). p. 436.A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era,
  3. ^ Cullin, Louis. (2003). p. 27.A History of Japan, 1582–1941,
  4. ^ Screech, Timon. (2006). p. 243 n113.Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822,
  5. ^ a b Cunningham, Don. (2004). p. 42.Taiho-Jutsu: Law and Order in the Age of the Samurai,
  6. ^ a b c d e f Jansen, Marius. (1995). p. 186Warrior Rule in Japan,, citing John Whitney Hall. (1955). Tanuma Okitsugu: Forerunner of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  7. ^ a b c Beasley, William. (1955). Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853-1868, p. 322.
  8. ^ Cullen, p. 170.
  9. ^ Beasley, p. 323.
  10. ^ Screech, p. 245 n35; Beasley, p. 323.
  11. ^ Naito, Akira et al. (2003). p. 26.Edo: the City that Became Tokyo,
  12. ^ Beasley, p. 324.
  13. ^ Screech, p. 19; Beasley, p. 324; Roberts, Luke Shepherd. (1998). p. 207.Mercantilism in a Japanese Domain: The Merchant Origins of Economic Nationalism in 18th Century Tosa,
  14. ^ a b c Jensen, p. 186; Schaede, Ulrike. (2000). p. 223.Cooperative Capitalism: Self-Regulation, Trade Associations, and the Antimonopoly Law in Japan,
  15. ^ Shimada, Ryuto. (2005). p. 51.The Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese Copper by the Dutch East India Company,
  16. ^ Takekoshi, Yosaburo. (1930). p. 238.The economic aspects of the history of the civilization of Japan,
  17. ^ Hall, John Whitney. (1955) p. 201Tanuma Okitsugu: Forerunner of Modern Japan,
  18. ^ a b c Beasley, p. 325.
  19. ^ Sasama Yoshihiko. (1995). Edo machi-bugyō jiten, p. 11; Screech, p. 19.
  20. ^ Murdoch, James. (1996) p. 10;A History of Japan, Jansen, Marius B. (1995). p. 226.Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration,
  21. ^ Murdoch, p. 10;
  22. ^ Screech, p. 12; Beasley, p. 326.
  23. ^ Screech, p. 241 n69.
  24. ^ a b c Murdoch, p. 9.
  25. ^ Sasama, p. 152.
  26. ^ Cullen, p. 112.
  27. ^ Coaldrake, William H. (1996) p. 178.Architecture and Authority in Japan,
  28. ^ Beasley, p. 329.
  29. ^ Cullen, p. 173; Beasley p. 330.
  30. ^ Murdoch, p. 334.
  31. ^ Van de Polder, Léon. (1891). p. 419Transaction of the Asiatic Society of Japan"Abridged History of the Copper Coins of Japan," -500.

References

  • Beasley, William G. (1951). Britain and the Opening of Japan, 1834-1858. London: Luzac & Company. reprinted by Routledge, London, 1995. 10-ISBN 1-873410-43-3; 13-ISBN 978-1-873410-43-1 (paper)
  • ____________. (1955). Select Documents on Japanese Foreign Policy, 1853-1868. London: Oxford University Press. [reprinted by RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2001. 10-ISBN 0-19-713508-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-19-713508-2 (cloth)]
  • Brinkley, Frank. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era. London: Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Coaldrake, William H. (1996) Architecture and Authority in Japan. London: Routledge. 10-ISBN 0-415-10601-X; 13-ISBN 978-0-415-10601-6 (paper)
  • Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10-ISBN 0-521-82155-X (cloth) -- 10-ISBN 0-521-52918-2 (paper)
  • Cunningham, Don. (2004). Taiho-Jutsu: Law and Order in the Age of the Samurai. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. 10-ISBN 0-8048-3536-5; 13-ISBN 978-0-8048-3536-7 (cloth)
  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
  • Hall, John Whitney. (1955) Tanuma Okitsugu: Forerunner of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Jansen, Marius B. (1995). Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-10173-2
  • ____________. (1995). Warrior Rule in Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10-ISBN 0-521-48404-9
  • Kinihara, Misako. (唐船奉行の成立 : 足利義教による飯尾貞連の登用)The Establishment of the Tosen bugyō in the Reign of Ashikaga Yoshinori, Tokyo Woman's Christian University. Essays and Studies. 44:2, 27-53.
  • James Murdoch. (1926). A History of Japan. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. reprinted by Routledge, 1996. 10-ISBN 0-415-15417-0
  • Naito, Akira, Kazuo Hozumi, and H. Mack Horto. (2003). Edo: the City that Became Tokyo. Tokyo: Kodansha. 10-ISBN 4-7700-2757-5
  • Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A.R. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794-1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby-Fane Memorial.
  • Roberts, Luke Shepherd. (1998). Mercantilism in a Japanese Domain: The Merchant Origins of Economic Nationalism in 18th Century Tosa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10-ISBN 0-521-89335-6
  • Sasama Yoshihiko (1995). Edo Machi Bugyō Jiten. Tokyo: Kashiwa-shobo.
  • Sato, Yasunobu. (2001). Commercial Dispute Processing and Japan. Amsterdam: Wolters Kluwer. 10-ISBN 90-411-1668-0; 13-ISBN 978-90-411-1668-0 (cloth)
  • Schaede, Ulrike. (2000). Cooperative Capitalism: Self-Regulation, Trade Associations, and the Antimonopoly Law in Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10-ISBN 0-19-829718-1; 13-ISBN 978-0-19-829718-5 (cloth)
  • Screech, Timon. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-7007-1720-X
  • Shimada, Ryuto. (2005). The Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese Copper by the Dutch East India Company. Leiden: Brill Publishers. 10-ISBN 90-04-15092-7; 13-ISBN 978-90-04-15092-8 (cloth)
  • Takekoshi, Yosaburo. (1930). The economic aspects of the history of the civilization of Japan. New York: Macmillan.
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