World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Federal Defence Forces of Germany
Insignia of the Bundeswehr
Founded 12 November 1955
Current form 3 October 1990
Service branches Emblem of German Ground Forces Heer (Army)
Emblem of German Navy Marine (Navy)
Emblem of German Air Force Luftwaffe (Air Force)
Emblem of Streitkräftebasis Streitkräftebasis
(Joint Support Service)
Emblem of Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service Zentraler Sanitätsdienst
(Joint Medical Service)
Headquarters Berlin, Bonn and Potsdam
Commander-in-Chief Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen[1] or,
after declaration of state of defence, Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel[2]
Minister of Defense Ursula von der Leyen
Chief of staff General Volker Wieker (Heer)
Military age 17
Conscription No (suspended on 1 July 2011)
Active personnel 178,595 (4 September 2015)[3]
Reserve personnel 40,000 (2014)[4]
Budget € 33.26 billion[5] (FY13)
Percent of GDP 1.2% (FY11)
Domestic suppliers EADS
Heckler & Koch
Krauss-Maffei Wegmann
Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft
Walther arms
Foreign suppliers  European Union member nations;
 United States
Annual imports Volume of about $1 bln (2009 est.)
Annual exports Volume of about $9 bln (2009 est.)

The Bundeswehr (German for "Federal Defence";    ) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, since the German Constitution states that matters of defense fall into the sole responsibility of the federal government.[6]

The Bundeswehr is divided into a military part (armed forces or Streitkräfte) and a civil part with the armed forces administration (Wehrverwaltung). The military part of the federal defense force consists of the Heer (Army), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Streitkräftebasis (Joint Support Service), and the Zentraler Sanitätsdienst (Joint Medical Service) branches.

As of 31 July 2015, the Bundeswehr has a strength of roughly 180,000 active troops,[7] placing it among the 30 largest military forces in the world and making it the second largest in the European Union behind France in terms of personnel.[7] In addition the Bundeswehr has approximately 40,000 reserve personnel (2014).[4] With German military expenditures estimated at $46.5 billion (SIPRI, 2014), the Bundeswehr is among the top ten best-funded forces in the world, even if in terms of share of German GDP, military expenditures remain average at 1.2% and below the NATO recommendation of 2%.[8]


  • History 1
    • Traditions 1.1
    • Cold War 1955–1990 1.2
    • German Reunification 1990 1.3
    • Reorientation 1.4
  • Command organisation 2
    • Mission 2.1
  • Operations 3
    • Equipment 3.1
  • Appearance 4
    • Uniforms 4.1
    • Ranks 4.2
    • Women 4.3
    • Rank structure 4.4
  • Awards 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9



The Bundeswehr does not consider itself successor of the

  • Bundeswehr – Official site (in German)
  • Federal Ministry of Defence official site (in German, English and French)
  • Bundesamt für Wehrtechnik und Beschaffung official site (in German)
  • Bundesamt für Informationsmanagement und Informationstechnik der Bundeswehr official site (in German)
  • Territoriale Wehrverwaltung official site (in German)
  • Y - Magazine of the Federal Defence Forces (in German)
  • Zeitschrift fuer Innere Fuehrung (in German)
  • Reader Sicherheitspolitik (in German)

External links

  • Searle, Alaric (2003). Wehrmacht Generals, West German Society, and the Debate on Rearmament, 1949-1959. Westport, CT: Praeger Pub.

Further reading

  1. ^ "Art 65a Basic Law". Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  2. ^ "Art 115b Basic Law". Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  3. ^ "Die Stärke der Streitkräfte [Personnel strength of German Armed Forces". 4 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015. 
  4. ^ a b  
  5. ^ "Bundeshaushalt 2013" (in Deutsch). Federal ministry of Finance. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  6. ^ "Art 87a (1) Basic Law". Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "Die Stärke der Streitkräfte" (in Deutsch). 31 December 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Traditionen der Bundeswehr" (in German).  
  10. ^ Fritz Erler, ‘Politik und nicht Prestige,’ in Erler and Jaeger, Sicherheit und Rustung, 1962, p.82-3, cited in Julian Lider, Origins and Development of West German Military Thought, Vol. I, 1949-1966, Gower Publishing Company Ltd, Aldershot/Brookfield VT, 1986, p.125
  11. ^ Aberheim, ‘The Citizen in Uniform: Reform and its Critics in the Bundeswehr,’ in Szabo, (ed.), The Bundeswehr and Western Security, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1990, p.39.
  12. ^ Donald Aberheim, 1990, p.37; Donald Aberheim, ‘German Soldiers and German Unity: Political Foundations of the German Armed Forces,’ California Naval Postgraduate School, 1991, p.14, cited in Artur A Bogowicz, ‘Polish Armed Forces of 2000: Demands and Changes,’ NPGS Thesis, March 2000, and Obituary for General Ulrich de Maizière, The Times, 13 September 2006
  13. ^ Large, David Clay Germans to the Front West German rearmament in the Adenauer era University of North Carolina Press 1996 pp244-5 ISBN 0-8078-4539-6
  14. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, 'The Cold War - a New History', Penguin Books, London, 2005, p.220
  15. ^ Large op.cit. pp263-4
  16. ^ "Outlook: The Bundeswehr of the future".  
  17. ^ "Die Stärke der Streitkräfte" (in German).  
  18. ^ "Verteidigungshaushalt 2011" (in German).  
  19. ^ Shanker, Thom (10 June 2011). "Defense Secretary Warns NATO of "Dim" Future".  
  20. ^ "US Think Tank Slams Germany's NATO Role".  
  21. ^
  22. ^ "The Strength of the German Contingents" (in Deutsch). 28 November 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  23. ^ A soldier's joke about this situation runs thus: “The service uniform is called service uniform because it's not worn on service, while the field uniform is called field uniform because it's not worn in the field.” (In the field they wear the battle uniform (“Gefechtsanzug”), an extended version of the field uniform.)


See also



Officer cadets

Non-commissioned officers




  • Fahnenjunker- Cadet / Officer Candidate (with the rank of Lance Sergeant)
  • FähnrichEnsign (with the rank of Staff Sergeant)
  • Oberfähnrich – Senior Ensign (with the rank of Sergeant First Class)

Officer Cadets

Non-commissioned officers

  • Schütze/Flieger or equivalent rank – Private/Airman Basic/Aircraftman or equivalent rank
  • Gefreiter – Private/Airman E2
  • Gefreiter-UA – Private/Airman E2 – NCO Candidate (Sergeants/Staff Sergeants)
  • Gefreiter-FA – Private/Airman E2 – NCO Candidate (Staff Sergeant/Flight Sgts.)
  • Gefreiter-OA – Private/Airman E2 – Officer Candidate
  • Obergefreiter – Private First Class / Airman First Class
  • HauptgefreiterLance Corporal / Senior Airman
  • StabsgefreiterCorporal
  • Oberstabsgefreiter – Specialist / Master Corporal


Army and Air Force

Rank structure

Women have served in the medical service since 1975. From 1993 they were also allowed to serve as enlisted personnel and non-commissioned officers in the medical service and the army bands. In 2000, in a lawsuit brought up by Tanja Kreil, the European Court of Justice issued a ruling allowing women to serve in more roles than previously allowed. Since 2001 they can serve in all functions of service without restriction, but they are not subject to conscription. There are presently around 19,064 women on active duty[7] and a number of female reservists who take part in all duties including peacekeeping missions and other operations. In 1994, Verena von Weymarn became Generalarzt der Luftwaffe ("Surgeon General of the Air Force"), the first woman ever to reach the rank of general in the armed forces of Germany.

Ulrike Flender, the first female combat pilot in the unified German military


Medical personnel of all three services wear a version of the traditional caduceus (staff with entwined serpents) on their shoulder straps or sleeve. The officers' ranks have own designations differing from the line officers, the rank insignias however are basically the same.

Soldier and NCO ranks are similar to those of the Prussian and pre-1945 German armies. In the army and air force, a Gefreiter corresponds to the NATO rank OR-2 and Hauptgefreiter to OR-3. An Unteroffizier is the lowest-ranking sergeant (OR-5), followed by Stabsunteroffizier (OR-6), Feldwebel and Oberfeldwebel (OR-7), Hauptfeldwebel (OR-8), Stabsfeldwebel (OR-9) and Oberstabsfeldwebel. Ranks of army and air force enlisted personnel are designated by stripes, chevrons, and "sword knots" worn on rank slides. Naval enlisted rank designations are worn on the upper (OR 1-5) or lower (OR-6 and above) sleeve along with a symbol based on an anchor for the service specialization (rating). Army and air force officer candidates hold the separate ranks of Fahnenjunker, Fähnrich and Oberfähnrich, and wear the appropriate rank insignia plus a silver cord bound around it. Officers candidates in the navy Seekadett (sea cadet; equivalent to OR-4) and Fähnrich zur See (midshipman second class; OR-5) wear the rank insignia of the respective enlisted ranks but with a gold star instead of the rating symbol, while an Oberfähnrich zur See (midshipman first class; OR-7) wears an officer type thin rank stripe.

In general, officer ranks are those used in the Prussian and pre-1945 German armies. Officer rank insignia are worn on shoulder straps or shoulder boards. Army (Heer) and air force (Luftwaffe) junior officers' insignia are four pointed silver stars while field grade officers wear silver (black or white on camouflage uniforms) stars and an oak wreath around the lowest star. The stars and wreath are gold for general officers. In the case of naval (Marine) officers, rank is indicated by gold stripes on the lower sleeve of the blue service jacket and on shoulder boards of the white uniform.

Service Uniform Army (Heer)


The air force service uniform consists of a blue jacket and trousers with a light blue shirt, dark blue tie, and black shoes. Olive battle dress similar to the army fatigue uniform is worn in basic training and during other field duty. Flying personnel wear wings on their right breast. Other air force personnel wear a modified wing device with a symbol in its centre denoting service specialisation. These Tätigkeitsabzeichen come in bronze, silver, or gold, depending on one's length of service in the specialty. Wings, superimposed over a wreath, in gold, silver, or bronze, depending on rank, are also worn on the service or field cap.

The naval forces wear the traditional navy blue, double-breasted coat and trousers; enlisted personnel wear either a white shirt or a navy blue shirt with the traditional navy collar. White uniforms provide an alternative for summer. The officer's dress cap is mounted with a gold anchor surrounded by a wreath. The visor of the admiral's cap bears a double row of oak leaves.

The traditional arm-of-service colours appear as lapel facings and as piping on shoulder straps. Generals wear an inner piping of gold braid; other officers wear silver piping. Lapel facings and piping are maroon for general staff, green for infantry, red for artillery, pink for armour, black for engineers, yellow for communications, dark yellow for reconnaissance and various other colors for the remaining branches. Combat troops wear green (infantry), black (armour), or maroon (airborne) berets. Logistics troops and combat support troops, such as artillery or engineers, wear red berets. A gold or silver badge on the beret denotes the individual branch of service.

A German infantryman stands at the ready with his Heckler & Koch G36 during a practice exercise in 2004. US troops watch in the background. All rifles in the photo are equipped with blank firing adapters.

A different, traditional variety of the service uniform is worn by the Gebirgsjäger (mountain infantry), consisting of ski jacket, stretch trousers, and ski boots. Instead of the beret, they wear the grey "mountain cap". (see here for details.) The field uniform is the same, except for the (optional) metal Edelweiss worn on the forage cap.

The service uniform is theoretically the standard type of Bundeswehr uniform for general duty and off-post activity, most associated, however, with ceremonial occasions. The army's service uniform consists of a light gray, single-breasted coat and darker grey trousers, worn with a light blue shirt, black tie, and black shoes. The peaked, visored cap has been replaced by the beret as the most common form of headgear. Dress uniforms featuring dinner jackets or double-breasted coats are worn by officers for various social occasions. The battle and work uniform consists of Flecktarn camouflage fatigues, which are also worn on field duty. In practice, they are also used for general duty and off-post at least at barracks where there is also field duty even by others, and for the way home or to the post, and generally regarded as the Heer uniform.[23] In all three services, light sand-coloured uniforms are available for duty in warmer climates.

German Army signallers in service uniforms.



According to the new threat scenario facing Germany and its Airbus A400M transports as well as 140 Eurofighter Typhoon fighters and also several unmanned aerial vehicle models. 68 Eurocopter Tiger, 122 NH90 (18 of them in the naval version) and 15 special forces helicopters are being delivered. For the ground forces it plans to upgrade to Puma infantry fighting vehicle and started to introduce a novel land soldier system and a new generation of transportation vehicles and light vehicles, such as the Fennek, the Boxer MRAV and KMW Grizzly. Further, the German Navy is going to build 6 new corvettes (dubbed K180), 4 new F125 class frigates, two Joint Support Ships and two more Type 212 submarines.


Since 1994, the Bundeswehr has lost about 100 troops in foreign deployments. See also: German Armed Forces casualties in Afghanistan.

In support of Allied stabilization efforts in Iraq, the Bundeswehr is also training the new Iraqi forces in locations outside Iraq, such as the United Arab Emirates and Germany.

In addition to the numbers above, forty soldiers are on permanent stand-by for medical evacuation operations around the world in assistance of ongoing German or coalition operations (STRATAIRMEDEVAC).

Currently (24 November 2014) there are Bundeswehr forces in:[22]

Frigate Karlsruhe of the German Navy rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia where it is patrolling
Bundeswehr current international operations

Since the early 1990s the Bundeswehr has become more and more engaged in international operations in and around the former Yugoslavia, and also in other parts of the world like Cambodia or Somalia. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, German forces were employed in most related theaters except Iraq.


Today, after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world. According to the definition given by former Defence Minister Struck, it may be necessary to defend Germany even at the Hindu Kush. This requires the Bundeswehr to take part in operations outside of the borders of Germany, as part of NATO or the European Union and mandated by the UN.

The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany (Art. 87a) as absolutely defensive only. Its only active role before 1990 was the Katastropheneinsatz (disaster control). Within the Bundeswehr, it helped after natural disasters both in Germany and abroad. After 1990, the international situation changed from East-West confrontation to one of general uncertainty and instability.

German Army soldiers in Afghanistan (2009)


The minister of defence or the chancellor is supported by the Chief of Defense (CHOD, Generalinspekteur) and the service chiefs (Inspekteure) and their respective staffs in his or her function as commander-in-chief. The CHOD and the service chiefs form the Military Command Council (Militärischer Führungsrat) with functions similar to those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the United States. Subordinate to the CHOD is the Armed Forces Operational Command (Einsatzführungskommando). For smaller missions one of the service HQs (e.g. the Fleet Command) may exercise command and control of forces in missions abroad. The Bundestag must approve any foreign deployment by a simple majority. This has led to some discontent with Germany's allies about troop deployments e.g. in Afghanistan since parliamentary consent over such issues is relatively hard to achieve in Germany.

A German Navy Frigate

The combat forces of the Army are organised into five combat divisions and participate in multi-national command structures at the corps level. The Air Force maintains three divisions and the Navy is structured into two flotillas. The Joint Support Service and the Joint Medical Service are both organized in four regional commands of identical structure. All of these services also have general commands for training, procurement, and other general issues.

In October 2000 the Joint Support Service, the Joint Medical Service.

With the growing number of missions abroad it was recognized that the Bundeswehr required a new command structure. A reform commission under the chairmanship of the former President Richard von Weizsäcker presented its recommendations in spring 2000.

Minister of Defense, Ursula von der Leyen
Civil Emblem of the Bundeswehr

Command organisation

German military expenditures are lower than comparable countries of the European Union such as France and the United Kingdom, especially when taking into account Germany's larger population and economy. This discrepancy is often criticized by Germany's military allies, especially the United States.[19][20] The Bundeswehr has recently (as of September 2014) acknowledged numerous equipment problems and spare parts shortages that have rendered it "unable to deliver its defensive NATO promises".[21]

A major event for the German military was the suspension of the compulsory conscription for men in 2011. In 2011/12, a major reform of the Bundeswehr was announced, further limiting the number of military bases and soldiers.[16] As of December 2012, the number of active military personnel in the Bundeswehr was down to 191,818, corresponding to a ratio of 2.3 active soldiers per 1,000 inhabitants.[17] Military expenditure in Germany was at €31.55 billion in 2011, corresponding to 1.2% of GDP.[18]


With the reduction, a large amount of the military hardware of the Bundeswehr, as well as of the Volksarmee, had to be disposed of. Most of the armoured vehicles and fighter jet aircraft (the Bundesluftwaffe - due to Reunification - was the only Air Force in the world that flew both Phantoms and MIGs) were dismantled under international disarmament procedures. Many ships were scrapped or sold, often to the Baltic states or Indonesia (the latter received 39 former Volksmarine vessels of various types).

In general, the unification process of the two militaries—under the slogan "Armee der Einheit" (or "Army of Unity")—has been seen publicly as a major success and an example for other parts of the society.

About 50,000 Volksarmee personnel were integrated into the Bundeswehr on 2 October 1990. This figure was rapidly reduced as conscripts and short-term volunteers completed their service. A number of senior officers (but no generals or admirals) received limited contracts for up to two years to continue daily operations. Personnel remaining in the Bundeswehr were awarded new contracts and new ranks, dependent on their individual qualification and experience. Many were granted and accepted a lower rank than previously held in the Volksarmee.

After reunification of Germany in 1990, the Bundeswehr was reduced to 370,000 military personnel in accordance with the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany between the two German governments and the Allies (2+4 Treaty). The former East German Nationale Volksarmee (NVA) was disbanded, with a portion of its personnel and material being absorbed into the Bundeswehr.

German Reunification 1990

During this time the Bundeswehr did not take part in combat operations. However, there were a number of large-scale training and operational casualties. The first such incident was in June 1957, when 15 paratroop recruits were drowned in the Iller river, Bavaria.[15]

During the Cold War the Bundeswehr was the backbone of NATO's conventional defence in Central Europe. It had a strength of 495,000 military and 170,000 civilian personnel. Although Germany had smaller armed forces than France and the United States, Cold War Historian John Lewis Gaddis assesses the Bundeswehr as "perhaps world's best army".[14] The Army consisted of three corps with 12 divisions, most of them heavily armed with tanks and APCs. The Luftwaffe owned significant numbers of tactical combat aircraft and took part in NATO's integrated air defence (NATINAD). The Navy was tasked and equipped to defend the Baltic Approaches, to provide escort reinforcement and resupply shipping in the North Sea and to contain the Soviet Baltic Fleet.

After an amendment of the Basic Law in 1955, West Germany became a member of NATO. The first public military review took place at Andernach, in January 1956.[13] A US Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) helped with the introduction of the Bundeswehr's initial equipment and war material, predominantly of American origin. In 1956, conscription for all men between the ages of 18 and 45 was reintroduced, later augmented by a civil alternative with longer duration (see Conscription in Germany). In response, East Germany formed its own military force, the Nationale Volksarmee (NVA), in 1956, with conscription being established only in 1962. The Nationale Volksarmee was eventually dissolved with the reunification of Germany in 1990. Compulsory conscription was suspended - but not completely abolished as an alternative - in January 2011.

A flying MiG 29 seen from above. The cross-shaped roundel of the Luftwaffe is painted on the left wing.
The Bundeswehr was the first NATO-member to use the Soviet-built MiG 29 jet, taken over from the former East German Air Force.

The Bundeswehr was officially established on the 200th birthday of Scharnhorst on 12 November 1955. In personnel and education terms, the most important initial feature of the new German armed forces was to be their orientation as citizen defenders of a democratic state, fully subordinate to the political leadership of the country.[10] A personnel screening committee was created to make sure that the future colonels and generals of the armed forces were those whose political attitude and experience would be acceptable to the new democratic state.[11] There were a few key reformers, such as General Ulrich de Maiziere, General Graf von Kielmansegg, and Graf von Baudissin,[12] who reemphasised some of the more democratic parts of Germany’s armed forces history in order to establish a solid civil-military basis to build upon.

With growing tensions between the Soviet Union and the West, especially after the Korean War, this policy was to be revised. While the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was already secretly rearming, the seeds of a new West German force started in 1950 when former high-ranking German officers were tasked by Chancellor Konrad Adenauer to discuss the options for West German rearmament. The results of a meeting in the monastery of Himmerod formed the conceptual base to build the new armed forces in West Germany. The Amt Blank (Blank Agency, named after its director Theodor Blank), the predecessor of the later Federal Ministry of Defence, was formed the same year to prepare the establishment of the future forces. Hasso von Manteuffel, a former general of the Wehrmacht and liberal politician, submitted the name Bundeswehr for the new forces. This name was later confirmed by the West German Bundestag.

Leopard 2 tanks

There was a discussion among the United States, the United Kingdom and France over the issue of a revived (West) German military. In particular, France was reluctant to allow Germany to rearm in light of recent history (Germany had invaded France twice in living memory, in World War I and World War II, and also defeated France in the Franco-German War of 1870/71; (see also French–German enmity)). However, after the project for a European Defence Community failed in the French National Assembly in 1954, France agreed to West German accession to NATO and rearmament.

After World War II the responsibility for the security of Germany as a whole rested with the four Allied Powers: the United States, the United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union. Germany had been without armed forces since the Wehrmacht was dissolved following World War II. When the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in 1949, it was without a military. Germany remained completely demilitarized and any plans for a German military were forbidden by Allied regulations. Only some naval mine-sweeping units continued to exist, but they remained unarmed and under Allied control and did not serve as a national defence force. Even the Federal Border Protection Force, a mobile, lightly armed police force of 10,000 men, was only formed in 1951. A proposal to integrate West German troops with soldiers of France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Italy in a European Defence Community was proposed but never implemented.

The Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in 1955.

Cold War 1955–1990

Professional soldiers and officers of the Bundeswehr have to swear an oath with the same words, but beginning with "Ich schwöre, ..." ("I vow to...").

"I pledge to serve the Federal Republic of Germany loyally and to defend the right and the freedom of the German people bravely."
"Ich gelobe, der Bundesrepublik Deutschland treu zu dienen und das Recht und die Freiheit des deutschen Volkes tapfer zu verteidigen."

One of the most visible traditions is the Großer Zapfenstreich, a form of military tattoo that goes back to the landsknecht era. Another expression of the traditions in the German armed forces is the ceremonial vow (Gelöbnis) of recruits, during basic training. Annually on 20 July, the date of the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler by Wehrmacht officers in 1944, recruits of the Wachbataillon vow at the Bendlerblock, where the officers had their headquarters but recently the national commemorations in Berlin are now held at the grounds of the Reichstag, and there are similar ones held all over the Federal Republic on that day. The wording of the ceremonial vow of conscripts was and still is (for full-time recruits and volunteer personnel starting from 2011 onward):

As its symbol the Bundeswehr uses a form of the Iron Cross. The Iron Cross has a long history, having been awarded as a military wartime decoration for all ranks since 1813, and earlier associated with the Teutonic knights. The name Bundeswehr was proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel.

and its own tradition since 1955. Henning von Tresckow and Claus von Stauffenberg such as Hitler, the members of the military resistance against Clausewitz, and Gneisenau, Scharnhorst the military reformers at the beginning of the 19th century such as [9]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.