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Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall

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Collection: 1947 Births, Anglo-Scots, Anti-Poverty Advocates, British Anglicans, British Duchesses by Marriage, British Equestrians, British Health Activists, British People of American Descent, British People of Canadian Descent, British People of Dutch Descent, British People of English Descent, British People of French Descent, British People of French-Canadian Descent, British People of Scottish Descent, British Princesses by Marriage, British Racehorse Owners and Breeders, British Women Activists, Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, Chancellors of the University of Aberdeen, Charles, Prince of Wales, Companions of the Star of Melanesia, Dames Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, Duchesses of Rothesay, Fellows of King's College London, Honorary Air Commodores, Horticulturists and Gardeners, House of Windsor, Keppel Family, Living People, Mistresses of British Royalty, Mountbatten-Windsor Family, Parker Family, Patrons of Schools, People Associated with the University of Aberdeen, People Educated at Queen's Gate School, People Educated at the University of London Institute in Paris, People from Belgravia, People from Chippenham, People from Corsham, People from East Sussex, People from London, People from South Kensington, People from Wiltshire, People of United Empire Loyalist Descent, Princesses of Wales, Sexual Abuse Victims Activists, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada
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Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall

Duchess of Cornwall; Duchess of Rothesay (more)
The Duchess of Cornwall at Hillsborough Castle in April 2014
Born (1947-07-17) 17 July 1947
King's College Hospital, London, England
Spouse Andrew Parker Bowles
(m. 1973; div. 1995)
Charles, Prince of Wales
(m. 2005)
Issue Tom Parker Bowles
Laura Lopes
Full name
Camilla Rosemary[fn 1]
House House of Windsor (by marriage)
Father Bruce Shand
Mother Rosalind Cubitt
Religion Church of England

Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall GCVO CSM (Camilla Rosemary; née Shand, previously Parker Bowles; born 17 July 1947), is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, who is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Instead of using the title Princess of Wales, she is styled through her husband's secondary designation as Duchess of Cornwall because of the strong association of the primary title with his first wife, Diana. In Scotland, she is known as the Duchess of Rothesay.

Camilla was born into a gentry family as the eldest child of Major Bruce Shand and his wife, the Honourable Rosalind Cubitt, the daughter of British aristocrat Roland Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe. She was raised in East Sussex and South Kensington, and was educated in England, Switzerland and France. Subsequently, she worked for different firms based in central London, most notably the decorating firm Sibyl Colefax & John Fowler. In 1973, Camilla married British Army officer Andrew Parker Bowles, with whom she has two children and five grandchildren. They divorced in 1995.

For many years, Camilla and the Prince of Wales had a controversial relationship, which was highly publicised in the media and attracted worldwide scrutiny.[fn 2] In 2005, it culminated in a osteoporosis, which has earned her honours and awards. She has also raised awareness in areas including rape and sexual abuse, literacy and poverty, for which she has latterly been praised.[1][2]


  • Childhood and young adulthood 1
  • First marriage 2
  • Relationship with the Prince of Wales 3
    • Image rehabilitation 3.1
  • Second marriage 4
  • Duchess of Cornwall 5
  • Royal duties 6
    • Public appearances 6.1
    • Patronages 6.2
    • Areas of interest 6.3
      • Osteoporosis 6.3.1
      • Rape and sexual abuse victims 6.3.2
      • Other areas 6.3.3
  • Titles, styles, honours and arms 7
    • Titles and styles 7.1
    • Honours 7.2
      • Appointments 7.2.1
      • Honorary degrees 7.2.2
      • Honorary military appointments 7.2.3
    • Arms 7.3
  • Issue 8
  • Ancestry 9
  • Footnotes 10
  • References 11
  • Works cited 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14

Childhood and young adulthood

Camilla was born Camilla Rosemary Shand at King's College Hospital, London, on 17 July 1947 at 7:00 am (BST).[3][fn 3] She grew up in the Laines, a country house located in Plumpton, East Sussex,[4] and a three-storey house in South Kensington, her family's second home.[5] Her parents were British Army officer turned businessman Major Bruce Shand (1917–2006) and his wife, the Hon. Rosalind (née Cubitt; 1921–1994), an adoption worker.[6] She has one younger sister, Annabel Elliot, and had a younger brother, Mark Shand (1951–2014).[7] Her maternal great-grandmother, Alice Keppel, was a mistress of King Edward VII from 1898 to 1910.[8] On 1 November 1947, Camilla was baptised at Firle Church, Sussex. Her godparents were Hon. Henry Cubitt (her maternal uncle, later the 4th Baron Ashcombe), Major Neil Speke, Heathcoat Amory, Lombard Hobson and Vivien Mosley.[9][10][11] Camilla's mother worked for an adoption agency, while her father had different business interests after retiring from the army. He was most notably a partner in Block, Grey and Block, a firm of wine merchants in South Audley Street, Mayfair, later joining Ellis, Son and Vidler of Hastings and London.[12][13] During her childhood years, Camilla became an avid reader due to the influence of her father, who read to her frequently.[14] She grew up with dogs and cats,[15] and, at a young age, learnt how to ride a pony by joining Pony Club camps.[5] According to her, childhood "was perfect in every way."[16] Biographer Gyles Brandreth describes her background and childhood:

Camilla is often described as having had an "Enid Blyton sort of Childhood." In fact, it was much grander than that. Camilla, as a little girl, may have had some personality traits of Famous Five, but Enid Blyton’s children were essentially middle-class children and The Shands, without question, belonged to the upper class. The Shands had position and they had help—help in the house, help in the garden, help with children. They were gentry. They opened their garden for the local Conservative Party Association summer fête. Enough said.[15]

At the age of five, Camilla was sent to Dumbrells, a co-educational school in Ditchling village.[15] Dumbrells was remembered by a former pupil as "so harsh that a child who could cope with Dumbrells could cope with anything."[15] By all reports, Camilla flourished while going there and was seen as a "healthy and happy, jolly little girl."[17] At Dumbrells, she outshined at playing ice hockey in the winter and stoolball in the summer during school games.[18] She left Dumbrells aged ten to attend Queen's Gate School in Queen's Gate, South Kensington. Her classmates while attending Queen's Gate knew her as "Milla"; her fellow pupils included the singer Twinkle, who described her as the girl who had "inner strength," exuding "magnetism and confidence".[19] One of the teachers at the school was writer Penelope Fitzgerald, who then taught French; she remembered Camilla as "bright and lively". Camilla left Queen's Gate with one O-level in 1964; her parents did not make her stay long enough for A-levels.[20] At the age of sixteen, she travelled abroad to attend the Mon Fertile finishing school in Tolochenaz, Switzerland.[21] After completing her course in Switzerland, she made her own decision and travelled to France to learn French and French literature at the University of London Institute in Paris for six months.[22][23]

On 25 March 1965, Camilla was a debutante in London.[24] According to Peter Townend, an editor of Tatler magazine, she was among 311 debutantes in 1965. Columnist Betty Kenward, who wrote in her column, Jennifer's Diary, published her coming-out party in the Queen magazine.[25] 150 guests attended the event, and was described by Kenward as "successful".[24][26] After moving from home, Camilla shared a small flat in Kensington with her friend Jane Wyndham, niece of decorator Nancy Lancaster. She later moved into a larger flat in Belgravia on Cundy Street around Victoria Coach Station, sharing with her landlady Lady Moyra Campbell, the daughter of the Duke of Abercorn, and later with Virginia Carrington, daughter of the politician Lord Carrington.[27] Virginia was married to Camilla's uncle Henry Cubitt from 1973 until 1979.[28] In 2005, she became a special aide to Camilla and Prince Charles.[29] Camilla worked as a secretary for a variety of firms in the West End and was later employed as a receptionist by the decorating firm Sibyl Colefax & John Fowler in Mayfair.[30] In her spare time, she became a passionate horse-rider and frequently attended equestrian activities.[31] She also had a passion for painting, which eventually led her to enrol for private tutoring from an artist to enhance her art skills, however most of her works, she states, ended up in the bin.[32] Other interests were fishing, horticulture and gardening.[33][34]

First marriage

In the late 1960s, Camilla met Andrew Parker Bowles—then a Guards officer and lieutenant in the Blues and Royals[35] through his younger brother, Simon Parker Bowles; Simon, at the time, worked for her father's wine firm in South Audley Street, Mayfair.[36] The couple dated on and off for some years, though broke up again in 1970, and Parker Bowles began dating Princess Anne; however, they later reconciled and announced their engagement in The Times in 1973,[37][38] marrying on 4 July that year in a Roman Catholic ceremony at the Guards Chapel, Wellington Barracks in London.[39] Camilla was twenty-six years old, while Parker Bowles was thirty-four. Her wedding dress was designed by British fashion house Bellville Sassoon,[39] and the bridesmaids included Parker Bowles' goddaughter Lady Emma Herbert.[40] It was considered the "society wedding of the year"[41] with eight hundred guests in attendance.[39] Royal guests present at the ceremony and reception were Princess Anne, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon.[41]

Bolehyde Manor in Allington, Wiltshire

The couple made their home in Wiltshire, purchasing Bolehyde Manor in Allington[42] and later Middlewick House in Corsham.[43] They had two children: Tom, born in 1974, who is a godson of Prince Charles,[44] and Laura, born in 1978.[45] Both children were raised in their father's Roman Catholic faith. Tom, like his father, is in remainder to the Earldom of Macclesfield.[35] During their marriage, Parker Bowles as an officer in the British army travelled extensively, he was posted to several countries, while Camilla stayed in the UK with their children.[46]

In January 1995, after twenty–one years of marriage, Camilla and her husband decided to divorce. The previous year her mother, Rosalind, had died from osteoporosis, and her father later defined this as a "difficult time for her". A joint statement was released by their lawyers on 11 January 1995, stating their divorce was amicable and claimed it was due to different interests, which eventually led to separate lives.[47] The divorce was finalised in March 1995.[48]

Relationship with the Prince of Wales

Camilla and Prince Charles reportedly met in mid-1971.[49] Though they both belonged to the same social circle and occasionally attended the same events, they had not formally met. Gyles Brandreth states that the couple did not meet at a polo match, as it is believed.[50][51] Instead, they were formally introduced to each other at an event by a mutual friend, Lucia Santa Cruz.[31][52] They became close friends and eventually began dating, which was well known within their social circle.[53] When they became a couple, they regularly met at polo matches at Smith's Lawn in Windsor Great Park, where Charles often played polo.[31][49] They also became part of a set at Annabel's in Berkeley Square.[49] As the relationship grew more serious, Charles met Camilla’s family in Plumpton and he introduced her to some members of his family.[54] The relationship was put on hold after Charles travelled overseas to join the Royal Navy in early 1973; however, it ended abruptly afterwards.[37][55]

There have been different statements on why the couple's relationship ended in 1973. Robert Lacey wrote in his 2008 book, Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, that Charles had met Camilla too early, and that he had not asked her to wait for him when he went overseas for military duties.[56] Sarah Bradford wrote in her 2007 book, Diana, that a member of the close circle of his great-uncle Lord Mountbatten claimed Mountbatten arranged for Charles to be taken overseas to end the relationship with Camilla to make way for an engagement between his granddaughter, Amanda Knatchbull, and Charles.[57] Some sources also suggest the Queen Mother did not approve of the marriage because she wanted Charles to marry one of the Spencer family granddaughters of her close friend, Lady Fermoy.[58] Other sources also suggest Camilla did not want to marry Charles but instead wanted to marry Andrew Parker Bowles since she had an on and off relationship with Parker Bowles that began in the 1960s[59] or that Charles had decided he would not marry until he was thirty years old.[60]

Overall, the majority of royal biographers have agreed that even if Charles and Camilla wanted to marry or did try for approval to get married, it would have been declined, because according to Charles's cousin and godmother Patricia Mountbatten, palace courtiers at that time found Camilla unsuitable as a wife for the future king. In 2005, she stated, "With hindsight, you can say that Charles should have married Camilla when he first had the chance. They were ideally suited, we know that now. But it wasn't possible."[...][61] "it wouldn't have been possible, not then."[...][62] When Charles heard of the engagement of Camilla and Andrew Parker Bowles in 1973, he wrote to Lord Mountbatten: "I suppose the feeling of emptiness will pass eventually."[63] Nevertheless, they remained friends.[64][65] In August 1979, Lord Mountbatten was assassinated by the IRA. Charles was grief-stricken and relied heavily on Camilla for solace. During this period, rumours began circulating among family, friends and neighbours that they had rekindled their intimate relationship.[66] A source close to Camilla confirmed that by 1980 they had indeed rekindled as lovers.[46] However, other sources assert it occurred earlier.[67] Reportedly, Parker Bowles gave consent to the relationship during their marriage,[68] while he also saw other women.[69] In 1981, Charles married Diana Spencer.[70]

The affair became public knowledge in the press a decade later, with the publication of Diana: Her True Story in 1992,[71] followed by the Camillagate scandal in 1993,[72] wherein an intimate telephone conversation between Camilla and Charles was secretly recorded and the transcripts were published in the tabloids.[73] The book and tape instantly damaged Charles's reputation.[74] Meanwhile, the press vilified Camilla.[75][76] In 1994, Charles finally spoke about his relationship with Camilla in a televised interview with Jonathan Dimbleby. He told Dimbleby in the interview, "Mrs. Parker Bowles is a great friend of mine...a friend for a very long time. She will continue to be a friend for a long time."[77] The same year he admitted in his biography written by Dimbleby that the relationship between him and Camilla rekindled after his marriage had "irretrievably broken down" in 1986.[78] Following this, the Parker Bowleses announced their own divorce the following year, having been living apart for some time,[77] and a year later, Andrew Parker Bowles married his partner Rosemary Pitman (who later died in 2010).[79][80]

Image rehabilitation

Following the two couples' divorces, Charles stated his relationship with Camilla was, and is, "non-negotiable."[81][82] Charles was aware that the relationship was receiving a lot of negative publicity, and appointed Mark Bolland—whom he had employed in 1995 to refurbish his own image—to enhance Camilla's public profile.[83] Camilla occasionally became Charles's unofficial companion at events. In 1999, the couple made their first public appearance together at the Ritz Hotel in London, where they attended a birthday party; about two hundred cameramen and reporters from around the world were there to witness them together.[84] In 2000, she accompanied Charles to Scotland for a number of official engagements, and in 2001, she became president of the National Osteoporosis Society, which first introduced her to the public.[85] She later met the Queen, for the first time since the relationship was made public, at the 60th birthday party of King Constantine II of Greece. This meeting was seen as an apparent seal of approval by the Queen on Charles and Camilla's relationship.[86][87]

After a series of appearances at public and private venues, the Queen invited Camilla to her Golden Jubilee celebrations in 2002. She sat in the royal box behind the Queen for one of the concerts at Buckingham Palace.[88][89] Though she maintained her residence, Ray Mill House—which she purchased in 1995 at Lacock, Wiltshire,[90] Camilla then moved into Clarence House—which became Charles's household and official residence in 2003.[91] In 2004, Camilla accompanied Charles on almost all of his official events, including a high profile visit together to the annual highland games in Scotland.[92] Throughout, the press speculated on when they would announce their engagement.[93] On 10 February 2005, Clarence House announced their engagement which received a huge amount of coverage in the media worldwide.[94] Polls conducted in the United Kingdom showed overall support for the marriage.[95]

Second marriage

On 10 February 2005, Clarence House announced that Camilla and the Prince of Wales were engaged; as an engagement ring, Charles gave Camilla a diamond ring that was believed to have been given to his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, when she gave birth to her daughter, Queen Elizabeth II.[96] The ring comprises a square-cut diamond with three diamond baguettes on each side;[97][98] As he is the future Supreme Governor of the Church of England, the prospect of Charles marrying a divorcée was seen as controversial, but with the consent of the Queen,[99] the government,[100] and the Church of England,[101] the couple were able to wed. The Queen, Prime Minister Tony Blair and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, offered their congratulations in statements to the media.[102]

The marriage was to have been on 8 April 2005, and was to take place in a Windsor Guildhall.[103] On 4 April, it was announced that the marriage would be delayed by one day to allow the Prince of Wales and some of the invited dignitaries to attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II.[104][105]

Charles's parents did not attend the marriage ceremony (possibly because the Queen felt unable to attend the remarriage of a divorcee, due to her position as Supreme Governor of the Church of England);[106] neither did Camilla's father; instead, Camilla's son and Philharmonia Orchestra and Welsh composer Alun Hoddinott.[109] As a wedding gift, The Marinsky Theatre Trust in St. Petersburg brought a Russian mezzo-soprano singer, Ekaterina Semenchuk to the UK to perform a special song for the couple.[110] Following the wedding, the couple travelled to the Prince's country home in Scotland, Birkhall,[111] and carried out their first public duties as a couple during their honeymoon.[112]

Duchess of Cornwall

After becoming Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla automatically acquired rank as the second highest female in the United Kingdom Order of Precedence (after the Queen), and as typically fifth or sixth in the orders of precedence of her other realms, following the Queen, the relevant viceroy, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Prince of Wales. It was revealed that the Queen altered the royal order of precedence for private occasions, placing Camilla fourth, after the Queen, the Princess Royal, and Princess Alexandra.[113][114] Within two years of the marriage, the Queen extended Camilla visible tokens of membership in the royal family; she lent the Duchess a tiara previously belonging to the Queen Mother,[115] and granted her the badge of the Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II.[116]

After their wedding, Clarence House became the official residence of both the Duchess and the Prince of Wales. The couple also stay at Birkhall for holiday events, and Highgrove House in Gloucestershire for family gatherings. In 2008, they took up residence at Llwynywermod in Carmarthenshire, Wales. They stay at Llwynywermod when on their weekly visit to Wales every year in the summer and for other occasions.[117] To spend time alone with her children and grandchildren, the Duchess still maintains her home, Raymill House in Lacock, Wiltshire, in which she resided from 1995 to 2003.[118]

The Queen, the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall during the Diamond Jubilee celebrations in 2012

In November 2010, the Duchess and her husband were indirectly involved in the 2010 British student protests when their car was attacked by protesters.[119][120] Clarence House later released a statement on the incident: "A car carrying Prince Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall was attacked by protesters but the couple were unharmed."[121]

On 9 April 2012, the seventh wedding anniversary of the Duchess and the Prince of Wales, the Queen appointed the Duchess to the Royal Victorian Order.[122] The Duchess was a prominent participant in the celebrations for the Queen's Diamond Jubilee during the extended weekend of 2 to 5 June 2012, especially following the absence of the Duke of Edinburgh owing to ill health on 4 and 5 June. She stood next to the Queen during the speech by the Prince of Wales at the conclusion of the Diamond Jubilee Concert and was seated next to the Queen the following day in the carriage procession from Westminster to Buckingham Palace.[123]

Royal duties

Public appearances

Prince Charles and Camilla are greeted by Federal Emergency Management Agency officials as they arrive to tour the damage created by Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, November 2005

The Duchess made her Laura Bush at the White house.[125] Afterward they visited New Orleans to see the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and met with some of the residents whose lives were changed drastically by the hurricane.[126] In March 2006, the couple undertook official visits to Egypt, Saudi Arabia and India.[127] In November 2007, the Duchess toured with the Prince of Wales on a four-day visit to Turkey.[128] In 2008, she joined the Prince of Wales to tour the Caribbean, Japan, Brunei and Indonesia.[129] In 2009, they embarked on a tour of Chile, Brazil, Ecuador,[130] Italy and Germany. Their visit to the Holy See included a meeting with Pope Benedict XVI.[131] The Pope gave them an honorary medal and a drawing of the St Peter's Basilica.[132] They later visited Canada. In early 2010, they undertook an official visit to Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland.[133] In October 2010, she accompanied the Prince of Wales to Delhi, India for the opening of the 2010 Commonwealth Games.[134]

Official opening of the Fourth Assembly at the Senedd in Cardiff, Wales. From left to right: Carwyn Jones, the Prince of Wales, the Duchess of Cornwall, the Queen and Rosemary Butler, 7 June 2011

In March 2011, the Duchess went with the Prince of Wales to undertake official visits in Portugal, Spain, and Morocco.[135] The tour began in Lisbon, Portugal. The President of Portugal, President Aníbal Cavaco Silva met them. In Spain, the couple were received in Madrid by the Prince and Princess of Asturias. They later met King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofía of Spain. The tour finished in Rabat, Morocco, where they met the King of Morocco.[136] The Duchess attended the 10th anniversary of the 11 September 2001 attacks along with the Prince of Wales and the Prime Minister, David Cameron, on 11 September 2011.[137] In August 2011, the Duchess accompanied the Prince of Wales to Tottenham to visit the aftermath of the London riots.[138][139] The couple later went to see Tottenham residents in February 2012, meeting with local shop owners six months after the riots to see how they were doing.[140] In November 2011, the Duchess undertook official visits with the Prince of Wales to tour Commonwealth and Arab States of the Persian Gulf. They toured in South Africa and Tanzania and met with President Jacob Zuma and President Jakaya Kikwete.[141]

The Duchess of Cornwall being driven away from St Paul's Cathedral during the Diamond Jubilee celebrations, 5 June 2012

In March 2012, the Duchess and the Prince of Wales undertook official visits to Norway, Sweden and Denmark to mark the Queen's Diamond Jubilee.[142] In May 2012, the royal couple undertook a four-day trip to Canada as part of the jubilee celebrations. Highlights of the tour included the celebration of Victoria Day which took place on 21 May 2012.[143] In November 2012, the Duchess and the Prince of Wales visited Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea for a two-week jubilee tour.[144] During the Australian tour, they attended the 2012 Melbourne Cup, where the Duchess presented the Melbourne cup to the winner of the race.[145] In 2013, they went on a tour to Jordan and met with King Abdullah II and his wife Queen Rania. They also made a visit to Syria and visited refugee camps of the Syrian civil war.[146] That same year, they attended the Enthronement of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Maxima of the Netherlands, as well as the preceding celebrations in honour of Queen Beatrix.[147] In June 2014, the Duchess and the Prince of Wales attended the 70th anniversary celebrations of D-Day in Normandy, France,[148] and embarked on a nine-day tour to Mexico and Colombia in November of that year.[149] In May 2015, the Duchess and the Prince of Wales undertook their first joint trip to the Republic of Ireland.[150]

The Duchess of Cornwall's first solo engagement was a visit to Southampton General Hospital;[151] she attended the Trooping the Colour for the first time in June 2005, making her appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace afterwards. She conducted the naming ceremony for HMS Astute on 8 June 2007, and, on 10 December, she did the same for the new Cunard cruise ship, MS Queen Victoria;[152] it was stated that the Queen was surprised by Cunard's invitation.[153] In May 2011, she attended the Classic Brit Awards and paid a tribute to James Bond composer and Oscar-winner John Barry with an award for his great contribution to music.[154] In June 2011, the Duchess alone represented the British royal family at the 125th Wimbledon Tennis Championships in Wimbledon.[155] The Duchess attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time in May 2013 [156] and the same month she travelled to Paris on her first solo trip outside the UK.[23]


The Duchess of Cornwall visiting Dundurn Castle in 2009 of which she is patron

The Duchess is the Ambulance Service, Arthritis Research UK, The Girls' Friendly Society, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Plumpton College Charitable Foundation, National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain, President of Elephant Family (Joint with the Prince of Wales),[160] Maggie’s Cancer Caring Centres and JDRF, as well as president or patron of other charities.[158]

She is the honorary Commodore-in-Chief of the Royal Navy Medical Service. In this role she visited the training-ship HMS Excellent in January 2012, to award medals to naval medical teams returning from service in Afghanistan.[161] The Duchess is also an honorary member of other patronages and in February 2012, she was elected a bencher of The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn.[162] In March 2012, the Duchess became the patron of the Big Jubilee Lunch, in which societies in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth realms planned lunches which included street parties and garden gatherings on 3 June 2012, as part of the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee celebrations.[163] In February 2013, she was appointed Chancellor of the University of Aberdeen, a role which is ceremonial and will involve conferring graduates with their degrees [164] and took up the office in June 2013. She is the first female chancellor of the University of Aberdeen and only member of the royal family to hold the post since it was created in 1860.[165] In 2015, her presidency of WOW (Women of the World Festival)—an annual festival that celebrates the achievements of women and girls as well as looking at the obstacles they face across the world—was announced.[166]

Areas of interest


NIH Director Dr. Elias Zerhouni welcomes the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall to NIH for a discussion on osteoporosis with Surgeon General Richard Carmona and other health officials, November 2005

In 1994, she became a member of the National Osteoporosis Society after her mother died painfully from the disease that year. Her maternal grandmother also died from the disease in 1986. She became patron of the charity in 1997 and appointed president in 2001 in a highly publicised event, accompanied by the Prince of Wales.[167] In 2002, she launched a mini book titled A Skeleton Guide to a Healthy you, Vitamins and Minerals which aims to help women protect themselves from the disease at the one of the society's reception.[168][169] The following month that year, she attended the Roundtable of International Women Leaders to Examine Barriers to Reimbursement for Diagnosis and Treatment of Osteoporosis conference along with 13 eminent women from around the world. The event was organised by the National Institutes of Health in Maryland, U.S to give a presentation on osteoporosis to high profile health figures.[171]

In 2006, the Duchess launched the Big Bone walk campaign, which she led 90 children and osteoporosis sufferers for a 10-mile walk on a climb across Loch Muick around Balmoral Estate in Scotland to raise money for the charity.[172] The campaign raised £200,000 and continues almost every year as one of the fundraisers for the charity.[173] In 2011, she appeared in the BBC radio drama The Archers, playing herself[174] to raise the profile of the disease and in 2013 teamed up with the television series Strictly Come Dancing to raise funds for the National Osteoporosis Society.[175] She has spoken at more than 60 functions on the disease in the UK and around the world and has also opened bone scanning units and osteoporosis centres to help sufferers of the disease.[167] Almost every year, the Duchess attends and partakes in World Osteoporosis Day, by attending events around the UK on 20 October.[176] She continues to attend conferences around the world and meets with health experts to further discuss the disease.[177][178]

For her works on raising awareness of osteoporosis around the world, the Duchess was honoured with an Ethel LeFrak award in 2005 from the U.S[179] and received a Kohn Award in 2007 by the Royal Society.[180][181] In 2007, the Duchess also opened The Duchess of Cornwall Centre for Osteoporosis, named after her at Royal Cornwall Hospital, in recognition to the Royal Cornwall Hospitals Trust, whose devotion to the treatment of osteoporosis and bone illness had been successful. The naming of the centre took place on 5 July 2007 in Truro, Cornwall where the hospital is located.[182][183] The same year, King's College London awarded her an honorary fellowship of the university for raising the profile of osteoporosis.[184] The National Osteoporosis Society also created The Duchess of Cornwall Award in 2009, which is awarded to other advocates of Osteoporosis.[185]

Rape and sexual abuse victims

After visiting nine rape crisis centres in 2009 and hearing stories by survivors, the Duchess began raising awareness and advocating ways to help rape and sexual abuse victims to overcome and move past their trauma. According to The Times, "The stories Her Royal Highness heard on her first visit and the stories she heard subsequently have left her with a strong desire to raise awareness about rape and sexual abuse and to try to help those affected."[186] She often speaks to victims at a rape crisis centre in Croydon and often visits other centres to meet with staff and victims getting help around the UK and during overseas tours.[187][188] In 2010, she teamed up with Mayor of London, Boris Johnson and they opened a new centre in Ealing, West London for rape victims. The centre also opened to other areas including Hillingdon, Fulham, Hounslow, and Hammersmith.[189]

Antrim Area Hospital, where the Duchess opened The Rowan centre in Northern Ireland

In 2013, she held a meeting at Clarence House, which brought together rape victims and rape support groups. Director of Public Prosecutions

Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Queen
HRH The Duchess of Cornwall
Succeeded by
The Countess of Wessex
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn
Chancellor of the University of Aberdeen

External links

  • Tyrrel, Rebecca (2003). Camilla: An Intimate Portrait. Short Books.  
  • Wilson, Christopher (1994). A Greater Love: Charles and Camilla: The Inside Story of Their Twenty-Three-Year Relationship. London: Headline.  

Further reading

  • Wilson, Christopher (2003). The Windsor Knot. Citadel.  

Works cited

  1. ^ Johnston, Morgan (19 November 2012). "Camilla: the woman behind the image".  
  2. ^ "Camilla: The relaxed and friendly face of the monarchy".  
  3. ^ Graham, p. 9
  4. ^ Brandreth, p. 104
  5. ^ a b Brandreth, p. 107
  6. ^ "Who we are: President and Patrons: Annabel Elliot". Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  7. ^ "Duchess of Cornwall's brother dies". BBC. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Powell, Kimberly. "Ancestry of Camilla Parker-Bowles". Guide. 
  9. ^ The Times, 21 October 1944.
  10. ^ The Times, 5 August 1942.
  11. ^ "Royal Christenings (aka Christening Information of the Royal Family since King George I)". Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  12. ^ "Obituary: Bruce Shand". BBC News. 11 June 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  13. ^ Klatell, James (11 June 2006). "Camilla 'Devastated' By Father's Death". CBS News. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  14. ^ "The Duchess of Cornwall celebrates National Literacy Week". 3 February 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d Brandreth, p. 105
  16. ^
  17. ^ Brandreth, p. 106
  18. ^ Graham, p.14
  19. ^ Brandreth, pp. 108–109
  20. ^ Brandreth, p. 108
  21. ^ Brandreth, p. 146
  22. ^ Brandreth, p. 147
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  26. ^ Brandreth, p. 161
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  39. ^ a b c Brandreth, p.186
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  125. ^ "Charles, Camilla dine at White House".  
  126. ^ "Prince Charles, Camilla see Katrina's aftermath".  
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  129. ^ "The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall to go on a tour of East Asia". 6 October 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  130. ^ "Royals set for Chilean visit". SANTIAGO (AFP). 7 March 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  131. ^ "TRH to visit Italy, The Holy See and Germany". Prince of wales-press release. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  132. ^ "Charles and Camilla meet the Pope". BBC News. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  133. ^ "The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall to undertake a tour of Central Europe". 11 February 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  134. ^ "TRH to attend the opening of the Commonwealth Games in India". 21 September 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  135. ^ "Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall to visit Morocco". BBC News. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  136. ^ "The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall to visit Portugal, Spain and Morocco". 
  137. ^ "9/11 Anniversary". London: The Telegraph. 11 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  138. ^ "Prince Charles visits riot-hit London community". Time Live. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  139. ^ "London riots: Charles and Camilla hear Victims Tales". BBC news. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  140. ^ Lamdem, Tim (10 February 2012). "London Riots Anniversary: Prince Charles and Camilla return to Tottenham". Tottenham and Wood Green Journal. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 
  141. ^ "The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall to tour Commonwealth and Gulf Countries". 12 October 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 
  142. ^ "The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall to visit Norway, Sweden and Denmark". 20 February 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012. 
  143. ^ "The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall arrive in Canada to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee". 20 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  144. ^ Puente, Maria (2 November 2012). "Prince Charles and Camilla head Down Under for tour".  
  145. ^ "Camilla to present Melbourne Cup". ABC News. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2012. 
  146. ^ "Charles and Camilla tour Jordan". 13 March 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  147. ^ John, Simi (30 April 2013). "Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands Abdicates: Prince Charles and Camilla Attend Gala Dinner in Amsterdam".  
  148. ^ Phiipson, Alice. "D-Day anniversary: as it happened". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  149. ^ "Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, will make an official visit to Mexico and Colombia this year". Hello magazine. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  150. ^ "Prince Charles and Camilla to visit Northern Ireland and the Republic, Clarence House announces". 21 April 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  151. ^ Brandreth, p.321
  152. ^ "Cunard Line: ''Her Royal Highness The Duchess Of Cornwall To Name Cunard's New Queen Victoria''; 10 September 2007". Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  153. ^ Owen, Glen (2 December 2007). "Queen 'surprised' as Camilla is chosen to launch Cunard's Victoria". Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  154. ^ "James Bond composer John Barry honoured by Duchess of Cornwall". London: The Telegraph. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  155. ^ "The Duchess of Cornwall attends the 125th Wimbledon Championships". 22 June 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  156. ^ "Queen's Speech: Prince Charles attends State Opening of Parliament". The Daily Telegraph. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  157. ^ "Camilla on royal visit at Hampstead school", Hampstead and Highgate Express, 25 February 2009.
  158. ^ a b c "Charities and Patronages". Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  159. ^ "Camilla (Duchess of Cornwall,) Proud to be Patron of Podiatry". 8 February 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  160. ^ "Elephant Family Receives Royal Patronage". Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  161. ^ "Duchess of Cornwall presents medals to navy medics". BBC News. 27 January 2012. 
  162. ^ "The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall: Diary". 15 February 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  163. ^ "The Duchess of Cornwall becomes Patron of the Big Jubilee Lunch". Prince of 15 March 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  164. ^ "Duchess of Cornwall elected as university chancellor". The Guardian. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  165. ^ "The Duchess of Rothesay becomes Chancellor of Aberdeen University". 10 June 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  166. ^ Jobson, Robert (16 February 2015). "Camilla to be president of Women of the World festival". London Evening Standard, Royal Editor. Retrieved March 2015. 
  167. ^ a b Soames, Emma (20 November 2006). "Camilla's dearest cause".  
  168. ^ "Camilla Book". Getty Images. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  169. ^ Celia Hall (1 March 2002). "Camilla launches guide to preventing osteoporosis". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  170. ^ "Parker Bowles joins NHS debate".  
  171. ^ "Duchess speaks on osteoporosis during the royal couple's visit to NIH's Clinical Center". / 5 December 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  172. ^ "The Duchess launches the Big Bone Walks at Balmoral in aid of the National Osteoporosis Society". 20 September 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  173. ^ "Duchess boosts Bone Walk campaign". 26 February 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  174. ^ "Duchess of Cornwall's Archers debut". BBC. Retrieved 9 September 2015. 
  175. ^ "Sequins and salsa for Strictly fan Camilla as she joins Craig Revel Horwood for night at theatre". Hello Magazine. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2015. 
  176. ^ "Duchess of Cornwall attends National Osteoporosis Day event". 20 October 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  177. ^ "Camilla meets osteoporosis experts". 29 March 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  178. ^ "Osteoporosis Centre gets royal seal of approval". 13 December 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  179. ^ "Camilla given osteoporosis award". BBC News. 17 May 2005. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  180. ^ "The Duchess receives the Kohn Award for raising awareness of osteoporosis". 31 October 2007. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  181. ^ Campbell, Denis (27 October 2007). "Camilla wins award for osteoporosis campaign". The Observer. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  182. ^ "The Duchess of Cornwall has officially named a new hospital clinic as part of a day-long tour of Cornwall.". BBC News. 5 July 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  183. ^ "Royal Patronage awarded to the osteoporosis service by Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cornwall, recognised the valuable local, national and international work of experts at the Royal Cornwall Hospitals Trust.". Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  184. ^ a b "Honorary Fellowship for Duchess of Cornwall". 13 September 2007. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  185. ^ "Susan Hampshire receives second Duchess of Cornwall Award". 8 July 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
  186. ^ Low, Valentine (2 February 2013). "Camilla takes leading role in fight to help rape victims". Times. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  187. ^ "Supporting victims of rape and sexual abuse". Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  188. ^ a b "Duchess of Cornwall hosts a reception supporting survivors of rape and sexual abuse".  
  189. ^ Kirk, Tristan (13 July 2010). "Duchess of Cornwall opens new rape support centre in Ealing". Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  190. ^ Skyes, Tom (6 February 2013). "Camilla's Compassion For Rape Victims".  
  191. ^ "Duchess of Cornwall officially opens The Rowan". 4 July 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  192. ^ "Northern Ireland first Sexual assault referral centre opens". 25 June 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2014. 
  193. ^ Day 2: The Prince and The Duchess visit India
  194. ^ "The Duchess of Cornwall celebrates International Literacy Day". 8 September 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  195. ^ "Duchess Of Cornwall Donates Books To Charity". 2 June 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  196. ^ "Camilla joins our literacy campaign". The Evening Standard. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  197. ^ "HRH the Duchess of Cornwall launches our search for Literacy Heroes". 4 October 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  198. ^ "Theo Walcott joins Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall to launch Premier League Reading Stars.". 26 January 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  199. ^ "A message from HRH The Duchess of Cornwall for the National Literacy Trust's 'Literacy Heroes' Campaign". 4 October 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  200. ^ "Our President: HRH The Duchess of Cornwall". Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  201. ^ Sydney, Grace (22 August 2011). "Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall Adopts Rescue Puppy". Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  202. ^ Sydney, Grace (3 October 2012). "Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall Adopts Second Rescue Puppy". Retrieved 14 June 2014. 
  203. ^ "Camilla opens new equine veterinary facilities". 29 February 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  204. ^ "The Duchess of Cornwall's honey is a huge success in Fortnum & Mason". Hello magazine. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  205. ^ "Duchess takes on the Duchy in the battle of the royal honeycombs". The Daily Telegraph. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
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  207. ^ "The Duchess of Cornwall hosts a reception for representatives of the credit union sector". 16 October 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  208. ^ "Duchess of Cornwall praised for backing anti-FGM campaign". Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
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  210. ^ a b c "Titles and Heraldry". Retrieved 8 September 2015. 
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  212. ^ "Camilla might still become Queen". The Times (UK). Retrieved 24 May 2009. 
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  1. ^ On the unusual occasions when a surname is used, it is Mountbatten-Windsor. Her first married name was Camilla Parker Bowles. Her full maiden name is Camilla Rosemary Shand.
  2. ^ Charles and Camilla: Portrait of a Love Affair by biographer Gyles Brandreth depicts Charles and Camilla's relationship as controversial due to its longevity and throughout the book shows the media's interest and representation to the public.
  3. ^ Some sources report that she was born in Plumpton, but it seems that this is a confusion of her childhood home with her birthplace.


Camilla is descended from several American Loyalists through Sophia Mary MacNab. Ephraim Jones, born in Massachusetts in 1750, fought with the British during the American Revolution, was captured at the Battle of Saratoga, and later settled in Upper Canada. His daughter Sophia married John Stuart Jr., born 1777 in New York, the son of Rev. John Stuart, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1740 and was chaplain for the 2nd Battalion of the King's Royal Regiment of New York.[233]

Camilla's French lineage derives partly through her maternal great-great-grandmother, Sophia Mary MacNab of Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, Camilla and Prince Charles are ninth cousins once removed.[230][231] She is also a descendant of French colonist Zacharie Cloutier,[8] who founded one of the principal families of Quebec City, and William the Conqueror,[232] the first Norman King of England.

Camilla is descended from Dutch emigrant Arnold Joost van Keppel, who was created the Earl of Albemarle by King William III of England in 1696[224] through her great-great-grandfather William Keppel, 7th Earl of Albemarle. The Earl of Albemarle's son, Willem van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, married Lady Anne Lennox, who was the daughter of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, illegitimate son of King Charles II. Through Anne Lennox, her bloodline is descended from the House of Stuart and House of Bourbon.[223][225] Camilla's Scottish line descends from King Robert III of Scotland through his daughter, Mary Stewart, who was the mother of Sir William Edmonstone of Duntreath, an ancestor of her maternal great-great-grandfather, Sir William Edmonstone, 4th Baronet.[226] In addition, her paternal ancestors emigrated to England from South West Scotland.[227][228]

The Duchess of Cornwall's ancestry is predominantly English. She also has Dutch, Scottish, Colonial American, French and French–Canadian ancestors.[223]


Name Birth Marriage Issue
Tom Parker Bowles 18 December 1974 10 September 2005 Sara Buys Lola Rosalind Parker Bowles
Freddy Parker Bowles
Laura Parker Bowles 1 January 1978 6 May 2006 Harry Lopes Eliza Lopes
Louis Lopes
Gus Lopes


Arms of Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
On the Duchess's 58th birthday, Clarence House announced that Camilla had been granted by the Queen a coat of arms for her own personal use. It was reported that the Queen, Charles, and Camilla all took a "keen interest" in the arms' creation, and they were prepared by Peter Gwynn-Jones, Garter Principal King of Arms.[221] The Duchess's coat of arms impale the Prince's main coat of arms to the dexter, with her father's coat of arms to the sinister.[222]
17 July 2005
Coronet of the Prince of Wales
Quarterly 1st and 4th gules three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langed azure 2nd or a lion rampant gules armed and langued azure within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second 3rd azure a harp or stringed argent (the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom), the whole difference with a label of three points Argent; with an inescutcheon of four lions passant guardant, in gold and red, counterchanged, surmounted by the coronet of the heir (for the Principality of Wales); impaled with a shield of Azure a Boar's Head erased close Argent armed and langued Or on a Chief engrailed Argent between two Mullets Gules a Cross crosslet fitchy Sable.[222]
Dexter: a lion rampant gardant Or crowned with the coronet of the heir, differenced with a label of three points Argent; sinister: a Boar Azure armed and unguled Or langued Gules and gorged with a Coronet composed of crosses formy and fleurs-de-lys attached thereto a Chain reflexed over the back and ending in a ring all Or.[222]
The Royal Victorian Order circlet.
Other elements
Insignia of GCVO appended
Aside from the invention of a boar supporter (reflected in her paternal arms) for the sinister side, Camilla's coat of arms is entirely consistent with the historical heraldic arrangement for a married woman who is not a heraldic heiress.
Previous versions
Previous versions were depicted without the Royal Victorian Order, to which she was appointed in 2012.


United Kingdom

The Duchess of Cornwall holds the following military appointments:

General Sir John McColl, Lieutenant Governor of Jersey, with the Duchess of Cornwall in 2012

Honorary military appointments

Honorary degrees




See also List of honours of the British Royal Family by country


Because the title Princess of Wales became strongly associated with the previous holder of that title, Diana, Camilla has adopted the feminine form of her husband's highest-ranking subsidiary title, Duke of Cornwall, although legally she is Princess of Wales. Although she will legally become Queen if Prince Charles becomes king,[211][212] Clarence House stated on the occasion of their wedding in 2005 that it is intended that Camilla will adopt the unprecedented style of Princess Consort instead.[213] The title is similar to the style of Prince Albert. This is not the same usage as her father-in-law, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who does not hold the title of Prince Consort although he was created a Prince of the United Kingdom by his wife, Queen Elizabeth II.

  • 17 July 1947 – 4 July 1973: Miss Camilla Rosemary Shand
  • 4 July 1973 – 3 March 1995: Mrs Andrew Parker Bowles
  • 3 March 1995 – 9 April 2005: Mrs Camilla Parker Bowles
  • 9 April 2005 – present : Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall[209]
    • in Scotland: 9 April 2005 – present: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Rothesay[209][210]
    • in Chester: The Countess of Chester[210]

Titles and styles

Titles, styles, honours and arms

[158] The Duchess supports organisations that battle around the world on

The Duchess visits Ballyhackamore Credit Union at East Belfast in May 2015

The Duchess is a supporter of animal welfare and patron of many animal welfare charities including Battersea Dogs and Cats Home and president of Brooke Hospital for Animals.[200] She often visits other animal shelters to show her support and to see how the animals are cared for. In 2011, she adopted a rescue puppy, a Jack Russel Terrier from Battersea Dogs and Cats Home,[201] and in 2012 adopted another from the shelter.[202] Also in 2012, she opened two veterinary facilities at the University of Bristol's School of Veterinary Sciences at Langford, Somerset, which will provide treatment to sick animals.[203] In 2015, The Duchess teamed up with department store Fortnum & Mason to sell a limited edition of 250 jars of honey, which were produced by bees that reside in her private garden in Wiltshire. The Duchess honey jars sold for £20 a jar and were hugely successful, selling out in two weeks at the store.[204] Sales of the Duchess of Cornwall honey were all donated to support the Medical Detection Dogs charity, of which she is patron.[205]

Being an avid reader, the Duchess is an advocate for International Literacy Day and World Book Day.[194] In 2011, she attended the Hay Festival to support children literacy and while there, she donated books to the Oxfam bookshop.[195] The same year, she donated money to support the Evening Standard's literacy campaign.[196] The Duchess has also launched and continues to launch campaigns and programmes to promote literacy.[197][198] On spreading literacy the Duchess stated during a speech at an event for the National Literacy Trust in 2013, "I firmly believe in the importance of igniting a passion for reading in the next generation. I was lucky enough to have a father who was a fervent bibliophile and a brilliant storyteller too. In a world where the written word competes with so many other calls on our attention, we need more Literacy Heroes to keep inspiring young people to find the pleasure and power of reading for themselves."[199]

The Duchess of Cornwall with Peter McLaughlin, headmaster of The Doon School which she visited in November 2013 on her India tour[193]

Other areas

[192] The Rowan is the first centre opened to provide help and comfort to rape and sexual abuse victims in Northern Ireland.[191].Antrim Area Hospital and opened The Rowan, a sexual assault and referral centre at Northern Ireland The same year, the Duchess travelled to [190][188]

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