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Catalpa

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Catalpa

Catalpa
Catalpa speciosa flowers, leaf and bark
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Bignoniaceae
Tribe: Tecomeae
Genus: Catalpa
Scopoli
Species

See text

Catalpa, commonly called catalpa or catawba, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to warm temperate regions of North America, the Caribbean, and East Asia.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Species 2
  • Etymology 3
  • Food source 4
  • Other uses 5
  • Selected species 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Description

Mostly deciduous trees, they typically grow to 12–18 metres (39–59 ft) tall and 6–12 metres (20–39 ft) wide. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 6 metres (20 ft) tall. They can be recognized by their large, heart-shaped to three-lobed leaves, showy white or yellow flowers in broad panicles, and during the autumn by their 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in) long fruits, which resemble a slender bean pod, containing numerous small flat seeds, each seed having two thin wings to aid in wind dispersal. Because of the leaves, they are sometimes confused with the tung tree (Vernicia fordii) in the southern U.S., or the invasive Paulownia tomentosa imported from China.

Due to their large leaf size, catalpas are a popular habitat for many birds, providing them good shelter from rain and wind. These trees have few limb droppage, but drop large dark-brown bean pods during late summer. The wood of catalpas is quite soft.[1]

Catalpas will begin flowering after roughly 3 years, and will begin producing seed pods after approximately 5 years.

Species

The two North American species, Catalpa bignonioides (southern catalpa) and Catalpa speciosa (northern catalpa), have been widely planted outside their natural ranges as ornamental trees for their showy flowers and attractive shape, or growing habit. Northern and southern catalpas are very similar in appearance, but the northern species has slightly larger leaves, flowers, and bean pods. Flowering starts after 275 growing degree days. Catalpa ovata from China, with pale yellow flowers, is also planted outside its natural range for ornamental purposes.

Beanpods and leaf details of the northern catalpa

Etymology

The name derives from the Muscogee name for the tree, "kutuhlpa" meaning "winged head" and is unrelated to the name of the Catawba people.[2][3] The spellings "Catalpa" and Catalpah" were used by Mark Catesby between 1729 and 1732, and Carl Linnaeus published the tree's name as Bignonia catalpa in 1753.[4][5] Giovanni Antonio Scopoli established the genus Catalpa in 1777.

The bean-like seed pod is the origin of the alternative vernacular names Indian bean tree and cigar tree for Catalpa bignonioides and Catalpa speciosa, respectively.

The catalpa tree in Reading, Berkshire, England

Food source

The tree is the sole source of food for the catalpa sphinx moth (Ceratomia catalpae), the leaves being eaten by the caterpillars. When caterpillars are numerous, infested trees may be completely defoliated. Defoliated catalpas produce new leaves readily, but with multiple generations occurring, new foliage may be consumed by subsequent broods. Severe defoliation over several consecutive years can cause death of trees. Because the caterpillars are an excellent live bait for fishing, some dedicated anglers plant catalpa mini-orchards for their own private source of "catawba-worms", particularly in the Southern states.[6]

Autumn foliage

Other uses

Catalpa is also occasionally used as a tonewood in guitars.

Selected species

  • List sources[7][8]

References

  1. ^ Maroni, Kristi; Sarah Domville (2003-12-04). "Catalpa Tree". Tree Walk.  
  2. ^ Gerard, William R. Plant names of Indian origin_II. Garden and Forest. volume 9, no. 436. page 262. (1896).[4]
  3. ^ Cassidy, Fred. Lemmatization—The case of "Catalpa". in McIntosh, Language Form and Linguistic Variation: Papers Dedicated to Angus McIntosh. Amsterdam : Benjamins, 1982. Current issues in linguistic theory, 15.
  4. ^ Catesby, Mark.The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. volume 1. page and plate 49. [5]
  5. ^ Linne, Carolus von Linne. Species Plantarum. 1st edition. 1753. volume 2. page 622 [6]
  6. ^ Hyche, L. L., "The Catalpa Sphinx" Department of Entomology Auburn University, http://www.ag.auburn.edu/enpl/bulletins/catalpasphinx/catalpasphinx.htm Retrieved on 2009, 05-16.
  7. ^ "Species Records of Catalpa".  
  8. ^ "Plant name details for Catalpa".  

External links

  • images at bioimages.vanderbilt.eduCatalpa speciosa
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