World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000146034
Reproduction Date:

Title: Circumfix  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Central Atlas Tamazight, Prefix, Affixes, Comitative case, Collective noun
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


A circumfix is an [2]


Angle brackets are used to mark off circumfixes.

Germanic languages

The circumfix is probably most widely known from the German past participle, which is ge t for regular verbs. The verb spielen, for example, has the participle gespielt. Dutch has a similar system (spelengespeeld in this case).

East Asian languages

In Japanese, some linguists consider o ni naru and o suru to be honorific circumfixes;[3] for example yomu → oyomini naru (respectful), oyomisuru (humble).

Austronesian languages

Malay has eight circumfixes:

per kan
per i
ber an
ke an
pen an
per an
se nya
ke i

For example, a circumfix can be added to the root adil "fair" to form keadilan "fairness".[4]

Other languages

In most North African and some Levantine varieties of Arabic, verbs are negated by placing the circumfix ma š around the verb together with all its prefixes and suffixed direct- and indirect-object pronouns. For example, Egyptian bitgibuhum-laha "you bring them to her" is negated as mabitgibuhum-lahāš "you don't bring them to her".

In Berber languages the feminine is marked with the circumfix t t. The word afus "hand" becomes tafust. In Kabyle, θissliθ "bride" derives from issli "groom". From bni, to build, with t t we obtain tbnit "thou buildest".

Negation in Guaraní is also done with circumfixes, nd i and nd mo'ãi for future negations.

In some Slavic languages, and in Hungarian, the superlative of adjectives is formed with a circumfix. For example, in Czech, the circumfix nej ší is used – mladý "young" becomes nejmladší "youngest". The corresponding circumfix in Hungarian is leg bb, as in legnagyobb "biggest", from nagy "big". (In both cases, the comparative form is produced using the suffix without the prefix: mladší "younger"; nagyobb "bigger".)

In Gurmanchema, noun classes are indicated by circumfix.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.