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Connective tissue


Connective tissue

Section of epididymis. Connective tissue (blue) is seen supporting the epithelium (purple)

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four types of biological epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, including the nervous system. In the central nervous system the outer membranes, the meninges, that cover the brain and spinal cord are composed of connective tissue.

All connective tissue apart from blood and lymph consists of three main components: fibers (elastic and collagenous fibers),[1] ground substance and cells. (Not all authorities include blood[2] or lymph as connective tissue.) Blood and lymph lack the fiber component. All are immersed in the body water.

The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes.


  • Structure 1
    • Characteristics 1.1
  • Function 2
  • Clinical significance 3
  • Staining of connective tissue 4
  • See also 5
  • Notes and references 6
  • External links 7


Connective tissue can be broadly subdivided into connective tissue proper, and special connective tissue.[3] Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue (which is further subdivided into dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues.)[4] Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.[5] Other kinds of connective tissues include fibrous, elastic, and lymphoid connective tissues.[6]

Fibroblasts are the cells responsible for the production of some CT.

Type-I collagen, is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the mammalian body.[7]


Characteristics of CT:

  • Cells are spread through an extracellular fluid.
  • Ground substance - A clear, colorless, and viscous fluid containing glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to fix the body water and the collagen fibers in the intercellular spaces. Ground substance slows the spread of pathogens.
  • Fibers. Not all types of CT are fibrous. Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose tissue and blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical cushioning" to our body, among other functions.[8][9] Although there is no dense collagen network in adipose tissue, groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression in place (for example, the sole of the foot). The matrix of blood is plasma.
  • Both the ground substance and proteins (fibers) create the matrix for CT.
Types of fibers:
Tissue Purpose Components Location
Collagenous fibers Bind bones and other tissues to each other Alpha polypeptide chains tendon, ligament, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, gut, and intervertebral disc.
Elastic fibers Allow organs like arteries and lungs to recoil elastic microfibril & elastin extracellular matrix
Reticular fibers Form a scaffolding for other cells Type-III collagen liver, bone marrow, and lymphatic organs


Connective tissue has a wide variety of functions that depend on the types of cells and the different classes of fibers involved. cornea.[10]:161 Elastic fibers, made from elastin and fibrillin, also provide resistance to stretch forces.[10]:171 They are found in the walls of large blood vessels and in certain ligaments, particularly in the ligamenta flava.[10]:173


  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Connective Tissue
  • Overview at
  • UIUC Histology Subject 230
  • Connective tissue atlas at
  • Questions and Answers about Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue - US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

External links

  1. ^ "Connective Tissue Study Guide". 2 January 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Dorland's (2012). Illustrated Medical Dictionary (32nd ed.). Elsevier. p. 1931.  
  3. ^ Shostak, Stanley. "Connective Tissues". Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  4. ^ Potter, Hugh. "The Connective Tissues". Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  5. ^ Caceci, Thomas. "Connective Tisues". Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  6. ^ King, David. "Histology Intro". Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  7. ^ Di Lullo, G. A. (2002). "Mapping the Ligand-binding Sites and Disease-associated Mutations on the Most Abundant Protein in the Human, Type I Collagen". Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (6): 4223–31.  
  8. ^ Xu, H.; et al. (2008). "Monitoring Tissue Engineering Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging". Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 106 (6): 515–527.  
  9. ^ Laclaustra, M.; et al. (2007). "Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: The role of adiposetissue". Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 17 (2): 125–139.  
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Ross M, Pawlina W (2011). Histology: A Text and Atlas (6th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 158–197.  
  11. ^ Young B, Woodford P, O'Dowd G (2013). Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas (6th ed.). Elsevier. p. 65.  
  12. ^ EDS (2012). "EDS Awareness Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome." Acquired by (

Notes and references

See also

For microscopic viewing, most of the connective tissue staining-techniques, color tissue fibers in contrasting shades. Collagen may be differentially stained by any of the following:

Staining of connective tissue

It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have a connective tissue disorder.[12] Diseases of connective tissue include:

Clinical significance

Various type of specialized tissues and cells are classified under the spectrum of connective tissue, and are as diverse as brown and white adipose tissue, blood, cartilage and bone.[10]:158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose connective tissue, providing the ground for starting inflammatory and immune responses upon the detection of antigens.[10]:161

embryos that is capable of differentiation into all types of mature connective tissue.[11] Another type of relatively undifferentiated connective tissue is mucous connective tissue, found inside the umbilical cord.[10]:160


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