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Cord (unit of volume)

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Cord (unit of volume)

The cord is a unit of measure of dry volume used in Canada and the United States to measure firewood and pulpwood. A cord is the amount of wood that, when "ranked and well stowed" (arranged so pieces are aligned, parallel, touching and compact), occupies a volume of 128 cubic feet (3.62 m3).[1] This corresponds to a well stacked woodpile 4 feet (122 cm) high, 8 feet (244 cm) long, and 4 feet (122 cm) deep; or any other arrangement of linear measurements that yields the same volume.

The name cord probably comes from the use of a cord or string to measure it.[2]

Definitions

In Canada, the cord is legally defined by Measurement Canada.[3] According to the Weights and Measures Act in Canada, the only correct measurements of firewood and pulpwood are the cord and fractions thereof (e.g., half cord, quarter cord).

In the United States, the cord is defined by statute in most states. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology Handbook 130, section 2.4.1.2,[4] defines a cord and provides uniform regulations for the sale of fireplace and stove wood. In the metric system, wood is usually measured in steres and cubic metres: 1 stere = 1 m³ ≈ 0.276 cords.

Maine appears unique among U.S. states by also defining a "loose thrown cord" or pile of cut firewood: "A cord of 12 or 16 inches (30 or 41 cm) in length shall mean the amount of wood, bark and air contained in a space of 180 cubic feet (5.1 m3); and a cord of wood 24 inches (61 cm) in length shall mean the amount of wood, bark and air contained in a space of 195 cubic feet (5.5 m3). [1981, c. 219 (amd).]"[5]

Other non-official terms for firewood volume include standing cord, kitchen cord, running cord, face cord, fencing cord, country cord, long cord, and rick, all subject to local variation. These are usually taken to mean a well-stacked pile of wood in which the logs are shorter or longer than in a legal cord, to accommodate various burners. For example, a face cord commonly consists of wood that is 16 inches (41 cm) long. [6] The volume of a face cord therefore is 1/3 of the volume of a full cord even though it is 8 feet (244 cm) long and 4 feet (122 cm) high.

Heating value

Main article: Heating value of firewood

One seasoned (dry) cord of red oak has the heating equivalent of 108 US gallons (90 imperial gallons; 409 litres) of fuel oil.

See also

References

External links

  • Kern County Weights and Measures "About Firewood"
  • Nova Scotia Natural Resources Information Circular DNR - 1A: "Guide to buying and measuring stacked firewood"
  • Wood Heat Organisation Inc.
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