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Coregency

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Title: Coregency  
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Subject: Monarchy, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second, Paréage of Andorra 1278, List of current sovereign monarchs, Amenemhat III
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Coregency

A coregency (or co-principality) is the situation where a monarchical position (such as king, queen, emperor or empress), normally held by only a single person, is held by two or more.

Historical examples

Historical examples of this include the coregency of Frederick I of Austria and Louis the Bavarian over the Kingdom of Germany, and the coregency of William and Mary over England (along with Wales), Scotland, and Ireland. It was also found in Sparta with two Kings, San Marino with two Captains Regent, the ancient Roman Empire (by determination of Hadrian) and the Byzantine Empire, Ancient Egypt and Nubia, in these cases as a balance between King and Queen, male and female. Jure uxoris Kings in Kingdoms such as Spain and Portugal can also be found (Ferdinand V and Isabella I of Castile, Philip I and Joanna of Castile, Peter III and Maria I of Portugal, etc.).

City of Maastricht

The city of Maastricht was under the joint jurisdiction (parage) of the duke of Brabant and the prince-bishop of Liège. In 1648 it became a real condominium of two independent states, the Principality of Liège and the republic of the United Provinces. The coregency of the last was no longer held by a person but by the Estates-General of the Netherlands (until 1794).

Andorra

A similar situation still exists today in Andorra, which has two Princes (the Bishop of Urgel and the President of France).

Ancient Egypt

Another example is in Ancient Egypt, mainly in the Middle Kingdom, the Pharaoh occasionally appointed his successor (often one of his sons) as coregent, or joint King, to ensure a smooth succession. The Pharaoh also did this when he was elderly or unable to rule his country on his own (such as the case of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II or Amenemhat I and Senusret I). The existence of the practice makes establishing firm dates in Egyptian chronology more of a challenge, as the lengths of coregencies are often uncertain and complicate the use of accepted regnal lengths to establish dates. Some of the Queens of Egypt rose to a status of equal to the God-Kings, becoming co-rulers and / or at least as important in religious affairs, and were even portrayed with the same size as their male consort and even with the same size as the other Gods of Egypt. Such were the cases of Hatshepsut, Nefertiti, Nefertari and the Nubian Egyptian Queens. In the Ptolemaic Dynasty women finally rose to become equal co-rulers with men and even challenging them in order to become their respective consorts. This was due to a progressive improvement of the already high status of women in the Egyptian society, as well as to the religious principle of balance (Maat) between male and female. In Nubia, Queens like Amanishakheto and Amanitore were crowned alongside Kings at

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