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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5

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Title: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5  
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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5

PDB rendering based on 1H4L.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols  ; PSSALRE
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
EC number
RNA expression pattern
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Cell division protein kinase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5 gene.[1][1][2][2] The protein encoded by this gene is part of the cyclin-dependent kinase family.

Contents

  • Physiological role 1
  • Role in disease 2
  • History 3
  • Interactive pathway map 4
  • Interactions 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

Physiological role

Recently Cdk5 has emerged as an essential kinase in sensory pathways. Recent reports of Pareek et al. suggest its necessity in pain signaling. CDK5 is required for proper development of the brain and to be activated, CDK5 must associate with CDK5R1 or CDK5R2.[3][4] Unlike other cyclin dependent kinases, CDK5 does not also require phosphorylation on the T loop so that binding with the activator is sufficient to activate the kinase.[5]

Cdk5 is involved in the processes of neuronal maturation[6] and migration, phosphorylating the key intracellular adaptor of the reelin signaling chain.[7]

Experiments performed on mice lacking p35, a necessary activator of cdk5 in early brain development, showed that the normal layering of neurons was reversed in the cortex. This disrupted lamination again implicated cdk5 in neuronal migration and plasticity.[8]

Cdk5 is also involved in the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis via phosphorylation of munc-18.[9]

Blocking Cdk5 in mice helps them get over fear learned in a particular context. Conversely, the learned fear persisted when the enzyme's activity was increased in the hippocampus, the brain's centre for storing memories.[10]

Role in disease

Dysregulation of this enzyme has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases[11] including Alzheimer's.[12][13]

It is involved in invasive cancers, apparently by reducing the activity of the actin regulatory protein caldesmon.[14]

History

CDK5 was originally named NCLK (Neuronal CDC2-Like Kinase) due to its similar phosphorylation motif. CDK5 in combination with an activator was also referred to as Tau Protein Kinase II.[15] Furthermore, Cdk5 has been reported to be involved in T cell activation and play an important role in development of autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis.[16]

Interactive pathway map

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons edit
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "NicotineDopaminergic_WP1602". 

Interactions

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 has been shown to interact with LMTK2,[17] NDEL1,[18] CDK5R1,[5][19] Nestin[20] and PAK1.[21]

References

  1. ^ a b Demetrick DJ, Zhang H, Beach DH (February 1994). "Chromosomal mapping of human CDK2, CDK4, and CDK5 cell cycle kinase genes". Cytogenet Cell Genet 66 (1): 72–4.  
  2. ^ a b Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, Su LK, Gorka C, Nelson C, Harlow E, Tsai LH (August 1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J 11 (8): 2909–17.  
  3. ^ Patrick GN, Zukerberg L, Nikolic M, de la Monte S, Dikkes P, Tsai LH (1999). "Conversion of p35 to p25 deregulates Cdk5 activity and promotes neurodegeneration". Nature 402 (6762): 615–22.  
  4. ^ Paglini G, Cáceres A (2001). "The role of the Cdk5--p35 kinase in neuronal development". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (6): 1528–33.  
  5. ^ a b Tarricone C, Dhavan R, Peng J, Areces LB, Tsai LH, Musacchio A (2001). "Structure and regulation of the CDK5-p25(nck5a) complex". Mol. Cell 8 (3): 657–69.  
  6. ^ Jessberger S, Aigner S, Clemenson GD, et al. (November 2008). Danzer, Steve, ed. "Cdk5 Regulates Accurate Maturation of Newborn Granule Cells in the Adult Hippocampus". PLoS Biol. 6 (11): e272.  
  7. ^ Ohshima T, Suzuki H, Morimura T, Ogawa M, Mikoshiba K (April 2007). "Modulation of Reelin signaling by Cyclin-dependent kinase 5".  
  8. ^ Rakic S, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Faux C, Parnavelas J, Nikolic M (November 2008). "Cortical Interneurons Require p35/Cdk5 for their Migration and Laminar Organization". Cerebral Cortex 19 (8): 1857–69.  
  9. ^ Fletcher AI, Shuang R, Giovannucci DR, Zhang L, Bittner MA, Stuenkel EL (February 1999). "Regulation of exocytosis by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 via phosphorylation of Munc18". J Biol Chem 274 (7): 4027–35.  
  10. ^ Sananbenesi F, Fischer A, Wang X, Schrick C, Neve R, Radulovic J, Tsai LH (2007). "A hippocampal Cdk5 pathway regulates extinction of contextual fear". Nat. Neurosci. 10 (8): 1012–9.  
  11. ^ Dhavan R, Tsai LH (2001). "A decade of CDK5". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 (10): 749–59.  
  12. ^ Monaco EA (2004). "Recent evidence regarding a role for Cdk5 dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease". Curr Alzheimer Res 1 (1): 33–8.  
  13. ^ Qu J; Nakamura, T.; Cao, G.; Holland, E. A.; McKercher, S. R.; Lipton, S. A. (2011). "S-Nitrosylation activates Cdk5 and contributes to synaptic spine loss induced by β-amyloid peptide". PNAS 108 (34): 14330–5.  
  14. ^ Quintavalle, M.; Elia, L.; Price, J. H.; Heynen-Genel, S.; Courtneidge, S. A. (2011). "A Cell-Based High-Content Screening Assay Reveals Activators and Inhibitors of Cancer Cell Invasion". Science Signaling 4 (183): ra49.  
  15. ^ Kobayashi S, Ishiguro K, Omori A, Takamatsu M, Arioka M, Imahori K, Uchida T. (1993). "A cdc2-related kinase PSSALRE/cdk5 is homologous with the 30 kDa subunit of tau protein kinase II, a proline-directed protein kinase associated with microtubule". FEBS Letters 335 (2): 171–175.  
  16. ^ Pareek TK, Lam E, Zheng X, Askew D, Kulkarni AB, Chance MR, Huang AY, Cooke KR, Letterio JJ (October 2010). "Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity is required for T cell activation and induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis". J. Exp. Med. 207 (11): 2507–19.  
  17. ^ Kesavapany, Sashi; Lau Kwok-Fai; Ackerley Steven; Banner Steven J; Shemilt Stephen J A; Cooper Jonathan D; Leigh P Nigel; Shaw Christopher E; McLoughlin Declan M; Miller Christopher C J (June 2003). "Identification of a novel, membrane-associated neuronal kinase, cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p35-regulated kinase". J. Neurosci. (United States) 23 (12): 4975–83.  
  18. ^ Niethammer, M; Smith D S; Ayala R; Peng J; Ko J; Lee M S; Morabito M; Tsai L H (December 2000). "NUDEL is a novel Cdk5 substrate that associates with LIS1 and cytoplasmic dynein". Neuron (United States) 28 (3): 697–711.  
  19. ^ Chen, F; Studzinski G P (June 2001). "Expression of the neuronal cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator p35Nck5a in human monocytic cells is associated with differentiation". Blood (United States) 97 (12): 3763–7.  
  20. ^ Sahlgren, Cecilia M; Mikhailov Andrey; Vaittinen Samuli; Pallari Hanna-Mari; Kalimo Hannu; Pant Harish C; Eriksson John E (July 2003). "Cdk5 Regulates the Organization of Nestin and Its Association with p35". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 23 (14): 5090–106.  
  21. ^ Rashid, T; Banerjee M; Nikolic M (December 2001). "Phosphorylation of Pak1 by the p35/Cdk5 kinase affects neuronal morphology". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (52): 49043–52.  

Further reading

  • Morishima-Kawashima M, Hasegawa M, Takio K, et al. (1995). "Hyperphosphorylation of tau in PHF". Neurobiol. Aging 16 (3): 365–71; discussion 371–80.  
  • Peruzzi F, Gordon J, Darbinian N, Amini S (2003). "Tat-induced deregulation of neuronal differentiation and survival by nerve growth factor pathway". J. Neurovirol. 8 Suppl 2 (2): 91–6.  


External links

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