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Cytidine

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Title: Cytidine  
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Subject: Uridine, Cytosine, Ribonucleoside, Nucleosides, Polyglutamine tract
Collection: Nucleosides, Pyrimidones
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Cytidine

Cytidine
Skeletal formula of cytidine
Ball-and-stick model of the cytidine molecule
Names
IUPAC name
4-​amino-​1-​[3,​4-​dihydroxy-​5-​(hydroxymethyl)​tetrahydrofuran-​2-​yl]​pyrimidin-​2-​one
Identifiers
 Y
ChEBI  Y
ChEMBL  Y
ChemSpider  Y
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG  Y
MeSH
PubChem
UNII  Y
Properties
C9H13N3O5
Molar mass 243.217
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 Y  (: Y/N?)

Cytidine is a nucleoside molecule that is formed when cytosine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. Cytidine is a component of RNA.

If cytosine is attached to a deoxyribose ring, it is known as a deoxycytidine.

Contents

  • Dietary sources of cytidine 1
  • Cytidine analogues 2
  • Biological actions 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Dietary sources of cytidine

Dietary sources of cytidine include foods with high RNA (ribonucleic acid) content,[1] such as organ meats, Brewer's yeast, as well as pyrimidine-rich foods such as beer. During digestion, RNA-rich foods are broken-down into ribosyl pyrimidines (cytidine and uridine), which are absorbed intact.[1] In humans, dietary cytidine is converted into uridine,[2] which is probably the compound behind cytidine's metabolic effects.

Cytidine analogues

There are a variety of cytidine analogues with potentially useful pharmacology. For example, KP-1461 is an anti-HIV agent that works as a viral mutagen,[3] and zebularine exists in E. coli and is being examined for chemotherapy. Low doses of azacitidine and its analog decitabine have shown results against cancer through epigenetic demethylation.[4]

Biological actions

In addition to its role as a pyrimidine component of RNA, cytidine has been found to control neuronal-glial glutamate cycling, with supplementation decreasing midfrontal/cerebral glutamate/glutamine levels.[5] As such, cytidine has generated interest as a potential glutamatergic antidepressant drug.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b Jonas DA; Elmadfa I; Engel KH; et al. (2001). "Safety considerations of DNA in food". Ann Nutr Metab. 45 (6): 235–54.  
  2. ^ Wurtman RJ, Regan M, Ulus I, Yu L (Oct 2000). "Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humans". Biochem Pharmacol. 60 (7): 989–92.  
  3. ^ John S. James. "New Kind of Antiretroviral, KP-1461". AIDS Treatment News. 
  4. ^ "Scientists reprogram cancer cells with low doses of epigenetic drugs". Medical XPress. March 22, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Salvadore, Giacomo; DiazGranados, Nancy; Ibrahim, Lobna; Latov, David; Wheeler-Castillo, Cristina; Baumann, Jacqueline; Henter, Ioline D.; Zarate, Carlos A. (2010). "New Therapeutic Targets for Mood Disorders". The Scientific World JOURNAL 10: 713–726.  

External links

  • Cytidine MS Spectrum
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