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David Littman (historian)

David Gerald Littman
Born (1933-07-04)4 July 1933[1]
London, England[1]
Died 20 May 2012(2012-05-20) (aged 78)[2]
Citizenship British
Education BA and MA degrees
Alma mater Canford School, Dorset, England; Trinity College, Dublin; University of London
Known for Operation Mural; Representation at the UN; historian[3]
Spouse(s) Bat Ye'or
Children 3
Parents Joseph Aaron Littman (father)[1]

"President's private Commemoration" for Operation Mural in Casablanca 1961 by Israeli President Shimon Peres;[4][5]

"Hero of Silence" Order from Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center Mossad 2009[5]

David Gerald Littman (4 July 1933 – 20 May 2012) was a British human rights activist[6][7] at the United Nations in Geneva,[1] Mossad's agent best known for saving Jewish children in Morocco and a historian[8][9][10][11] He was married to the writer and political commentator Bat Ye'or.


  • Biography 1
  • Operation Mural 2
  • Activism 3
    • Release of Russian Jews 3.1
    • Hamas 3.2
    • Release of Syrian Jewish women 3.3
    • Lebanese Jewish hostages 3.4
    • Israel AIDS libel 3.5
    • Perceived Anti-Israel remarks and anti-semitism at the UN 3.6
    • Christoph Blocher 3.7
    • "Creeping Islamism" at the UN 3.8
    • Shariah, violence against women, and anti-semitism 3.9
    • Lecture controversy 3.10
    • Writings 3.11
  • Published work 4
  • Notes and references 5


David Littman was born on 4 July 1933, in London, England. He was educated at Canford School, Dorset, England (1951), and Trinity College, Dublin, where he earned his BA with honours and MA degrees in Modern History and Political Science, followed by post-graduate studies at the Institute of Archaeology, University of London.[1] He married his Egyptian-born wife Gisèle (née Orebi) (later known by her nom de plume Bat Ye'or), in September 1959. They moved to Lausanne, Switzerland, the following year.[1][12]

The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization was founded by his brother, Louis Littman.[13]

Operation Mural

Littman volunteered for a clandestine humanitarian mission to evacuate Jewish children from Morocco to Israel, via Switzerland. At the time, Moroccan Jews were prohibited from leaving the country.[3] Littman thought he was working for the Jewish Agency – years later it was revealed it was arranged with the assistance of the Mossad.[3][4] From March–July 1961, posing with his wife and baby daughter as Christians, the 27-year-old Littman ran the Casablanca office of the Geneva-based international NGO for children Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants de l'Afrique du Nord (OSSEAN).[1][3][4][5] His code name was "Mural",[4] and the code name for the mission was "Operation Mural". After months of negotiation by Littman, the children left Morocco in five convoys under the guise of a supposed holiday in Switzerland (with Littman accompanying the last convoy), and from Switzerland went to Israel.[3][4][5] In all, he assisted in evacuating 530 Jewish children to Israel.[3][4] The children's families joined them several years later.[14]

The story of Operation Mural was first made public in 1984, in an article in Maariv.[5] That in turn led to public recognition by President Chaim Herzog at an official presidential reception, followed in 1986, on the 25th anniversary of the operation, by a gathering of the children at which Littman was honoured with the Mimouna award in recognition of his activities.[4][15] A documentary film on the operation, filmed by Yehuda Kaveh, screened in 2007.[1]

On 1 June 2008, at a special private commemorative event at the presidential Jerusalem residence – with Littman, his wife, two children, three grandchildren and former key agents from the Mossad, who had worked with Littman – Israeli President Shimon Peres, said:[3][5]

"Well, it is a belated ceremony, but it doesn't lose its value, because what you did stands on its own legs and is not affected by time. I think that the saving of 530 children is, I imagine, the most moving experience a man can have. You say in Hebrew: 'The one who saves one life, is like the one that saved the life of the whole world.' But when you save 530 children, it’s really unforgettable. I want to express, on behalf of our people, our nation, our recognition of your courage, your wisdom, of your determination under extremely difficult conditions".[5]

A year later Littman was honoured by the Israel Intelligence Heritage and Commemoration Center in a unique ceremony on 1 July 2009,[4] with 200 persons, when the "Hero of Silence" Order was conferred on him, he being the 9th person to receive it since 1985. ("An order of highest esteem and appreciation, awarded to David Gerald Littman: A clandestine warrior, who risked his life and who served a sacred cause of the People and of the State of Israel"). A few months earlier a Casablanca French newspaper, Le Soir Echos, interviewed him through a Swiss colleague, with their own questions; and published the Operation Mural story integrally in four successive issues ( 23–26 March) with their own positive titles and sub-titles throughout, and no editing.[4] It was the first time that Moroccans learned about the affair.[4]


In 1970, the Littmans helped to found the Centre d'Information et de Documentation sur le Moyen Orient (CID) in Geneva, which published studies on Middle East subjects until the mid-1980s.[1] He supervised its publications until 1974, and then served as an advisor.[1]

Littman has been presenting on human rights issues at the United Nations in Geneva on behalf of various NGOs since 1986.[3][16] He appears before the United Nations Human Rights Council (formerly the United Nations Commission on Human Rights).[3] From 1986–91 he was main representative of the World Union for Progressive Judaism (WUPJ).[1] In February 1992, he joined René Wadlow (main representative of the International Fellowship of Reconciliation; (IFOR)), then with the World Federalist Movement (WFM).[1] He has been an accredited representative for the Association of World Citizens (AWC) and for the Association for World Education (AWE) since 1997, and an accredited representative and main spokesman for the WUPJ again since 2001.[1] He has made oral and written statements (some jointly) at the UN Commission on Human Rights for the WUPJ, IFOR, WFM, International Committee for European Security and Cooperation (ICESC), Christian Solidarity International (CSI), Simon Wiesenthal Center, International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), AWC, AWC, and other NGOs.[1]

Release of Russian Jews

In March 1987, Littman caused a walk-out by the entire Soviet delegation when he arranged for Natan Sharansky to speak about refuseniks at the Commission on behalf of WUPJ.[1][3] That same year, he appeared before the UN Commission on Human Rights, charging the Soviet delegate with antisemitism in an ascerbic diatribe,[17] and in 1988 he appeared before a meeting of the Commission which heard various "experts" discuss glastnost, raising the cases of several Jews in the USSR who were being refused the right to emigrate; he extended his request to Boris Yeltsin in 1991.[18] In August 1989, he appeared before the Commission representing WUPJ.[19][20]


Since January 1989, Littman has sought to make public at the Commission the fact that Hamas in its ideology calls for the annihilation of Israel, and points to Islamic texts for support of its position.[21][22]

Release of Syrian Jewish women

In October 1990, as the WUPJ's representative to the Commission, he petitioned for the release of single Jewish women from Syria; in March 1991 he urged the Commission to name a special representative to inquire into their situation; and in August 1991, he urged it to work for their release.[23][24]

Lebanese Jewish hostages

In August 1991, he appeared before the Commission on behalf of the WUPJ, stating that voices were being raised on all sides for the release of Lebanese Jews held as hostages in Lebanon.[25][26] In December 1991, he wrote a letter on behalf of the WUPJ appealing to UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar, asking him to discover the fate of the 11 Lebanese Jews who had been kidnapped in the mid-1980s.[27]

Israel AIDS libel

In March 1997, Littman responded to a Yasser Arafat accused Israel of "poisoning Palestinian schoolgirls" in a letter addressed to the UN Secretary General, a charge later shown to be false by a team of independent medical experts, according to the Jerusalem Post.[28] The following month, despite Littman's request that Miroslav Somol (President of the Commission, and Czech Ambassador to the UN in Geneva) take action against what Littman called the "mendacious and racist allegations", after meeting with a delegation of Arab ambassadors Somol withdrew his promise to circulate as an official Commission document his letter condemning a Palestinian representative's accusation that Israel spread AIDS among Palestinian babies.[29]

Perceived Anti-Israel remarks and anti-semitism at the UN

When Israel withdrew from the Durban World Conference Against Racism in 2001, joining the US in protesting perceived anti-Israel and anti-Semitic remarks, The Hindu reported that in an appeal on behalf of the WUPJ Rabbi Francois Garai and "historian Mr. David Littman, who represent the [WUPJ] at the U.N.'s European headquarters in Geneva, said the Durban conference was being used to prepare a 'holy war' against Israel and could wreck the world body." The appeal said:
"The U.N. is now undergoing its most shameful metamorphosis since its creation in 1945. Will you allow a U.N. conference intended to combat racism and discrimination to be brazenly hijacked by dictatorial regimes and mass demagogic NGO groups, thereby preparing a 'final solution', 'jihad', against Israel"?[30]

Christoph Blocher

In December 2003, when Christoph Blocher, who was known in the first instance for his inflammatory anti-immigrant rhetoric, won a seat in the Swiss Federal Council, Littman defended him from charges of anti-Semitism, saying "I personally do not accept the accusation that he is anti-Semitic and await with interest the new policies he will propose for Switzerland."[31]

"Creeping Islamism" at the UN

After the 7 July 2005 London bombings, he tried to convince the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights to condemn killings in the name of religion, but was interrupted so many times by delegates from Muslim countries he could not finish his request.[32]

In February 2006, [34]

Shariah, violence against women, and anti-semitism

The New York Daily News referred to Littman as a "rare but tenacious [voice] who confront[s] Islamic human rights abuses at the UN at every turn," and cited his complaining to the Council that Iranian law "still allows the marriage of girls at only 9 years old, and justifies the stoning of women for alleged adultery."[35][36][37]

When Littman sought to make a three-minute statement before the Council's eighth session in June 2008 (on behalf of the AWE) with regard to various forms of Islamic law was an "insult" to the religion.[3] A tense exchange—with 16 points of order—led to a 45-minute recess, after which Council president Doru Romulus Costea of Romania said: "The Council is not prepared to discuss religious questions and we don’t have to do so. Declarations must avoid judgments or evaluation about religion."[3] He told Littman to avoid any reference to the word shariah, and any evaluation of a religious matter.[3][40] By not mentioning those words, Littman was allowed to conclude his statement after an hour and a half.[3][41] At the Council's ninth session, when he spoke about the antisemitic writings of the Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar University in Egypt, the Egyptian delegate objected:
"Here in the Council, we’re here to promote religious freedom. We can discuss religious freedom, but we cannot discuss religion. We cannot discuss the basic tenets of religion. I argue that except for the distinguished representative of the Holy See, nobody in this Council is qualified to discuss theology. . . . Really, we should find something more interesting to do in life—like find a hobby, or grow a moustache or something."[3]
Ordered by new Council President Martin Ihoeghian Uhomoibhi to stop without completing his statement, Littman stepped down, saying, "This is impossible, sir."[3] In March 2009 he was again cut short, this time for being "off topic" when calling for a universal condemnation of defamations of Judaism during a discussion of freedom of expression and hate speech.[42]

Lecture controversy

Controversy surrounded lectures given by Littman and his wife at political correctness had demanded that Islam be represented as inherently peaceful and tolerant, and no explorations of its history and doctrines that would lead to a contrary view were deemed acceptable.[43][44][45]


Early in his career, Littman's writings were published in the Wiener Library Bulletin, a periodical of the Wiener Library. Others were published by the CID, which disseminated its publications by mailing them to prominent people and institutions.[1] He also published historical writings with Les Editions de l'Avenir, which distributed its publications in a similar manner.[12] Since 1971, Littman has published articles on historical and human rights issues in academic journals, including in Jean-Paul Sartre's Les Temps Modernes, in the press, and in three books.[12] He also published a chapter in The Century of Moses Montefiore (1985), published by the Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, under the auspices of the Oxford University Press.[46][47]

Littman contributed multiple chapters to The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims (2005), edited by Robert Spencer, Prometheus Books 2005, ISBN 1-59102-249-5.[48] Reviewing it, Asia Times identified Littman as one of the few people willing to address directly and openly (lest they be called anti-Muslim) the question of what is ailing Islam in the 21st century in terms of: "Is it all simply a matter of interpretation (i.e., abuse for personal or political gain), or does the sustained prevalence of such patterns reveal something inherent about the faith?"[49]

He has translated many articles by Bat Ye'or into English and co-translated three of her major books, the last published in 2005.[50][51]

Published work

  • Jews and Arabs: myths and realities, David Littman, 1973
  • Arab theologians on Jews and Israel: extracts from the proceedings of the fourth conference of the Academy of Islamic Research, D. F. Green (nom de plume of Littman and Yehoshafat Harkabi), Majmaʻ al-Buḥūth al-Islāmīyah, Éditions de l'avenir, 3 eds. in English, 2 eds. in French, 1ed. in German (over 70,000 copies of all editions), 1974
  • "Jews under Muslim Rule in the late Nineteenth Century," Wiener Library Bulletin 28, n.s. 35/36 (1975)
  • "Jews under Muslim Rule, II: Morocco 1903–1912", Wiener Library Bulletin 29, n.s. 37/38 (1976)
  • "Protected Peoples under Islam" by David Littman and Bat Ye'or, CID, Geneva, 1976
  • "Quelques Aspects de la Condition de Dhimmi: Juifs d'Afrique du Nord avant la Colonisation," in Yod, Revue des Etudes Hébraiques et juives modernes et contemporaines, (Publications Orientalistes de France), 2: 1, October 1976 (+ Geneva, Avenir, 10 May 1997)
  • Peuples protégés en terre d'Islam, by David Littman, Centre d'Information et de Documentation sur le Moyen-Orient, 1977
  • "Jews under Muslim Rule: The Case of Persia," Wiener Library Bulletin, 32, n.s. 49/50 (1979)
  • "Les Juifs en Perse avant les Pahlevi," Les Temps Modernes, 395, pp. 1,910–35, Juin 1979
  • The Century of Moses Montefiore, (ed. Sonia and V.D. Lipman), "Mission to Morocco (1863–1864)", pp. 171–229, by David Littman, in Oxford University Press, 1985
  • L'histoire du relief de Jérusalem (1864–1985), by David Littman, Centre d'information et de documentation sur le Moyen-Orient, 1986
  • Statements made by the representatives of the World Union for Progressive Judaism David Littman and Martin Gilbert forty-third session; UN Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, [2 February – 13 March], 1987, Union mondiale pour le judaïsme libéral, Martin Gilbert, David Littman, WUPJ, UN. Commission des droits de l'homme, 1987
  • "Human Rights and Human Wrongs," N° 1 – 11, 344 pages (verbatim oral and written statements: 1986–91 made by all accredited representatives of the WUPJ to the UNCHR and UN Sub-Commission, Geneva: 84 texts, of which 68 (oral) and 9 (written) by David Littman, WUPJ, Geneva, 1986–91[52]
  • "Utopia: A 'United States of Abraham'," Part 5, Chapter 48 (pp. 453–68) (Lecture: Society for Semitic Studies, Lund University, Sweden, 23 November 1994). Part 5, Chapter 48 (pp. 453–68), in The Myth of Islamic Tolerance
  • "The U.N. Finds Slavery in the Sudan", Middle East Quarterly (Philadelphia), September 1996
  • "Quelques Aspects de la Condition de Dhimmi: Juifs d'Afrique du Nord avant la Colonisation," in Yod, Revue des Etudes Hébraiques et juives modernes et contemporaines (Publications Orientalistes de France), 2: 1, October 1976 (Geneva, Avenir, 10 May 1997)
  • "Dangerous Censorship of a U.N. Special Rapporteur," Rene Wadlow and David Littman, Justice (Tel Aviv) No. 14, September 1997
  • "UN Special Rapporteur Censured on Islamist and Arab Antisemitism," by Rene Wadlow and David Littman, Midstream, vol. 44, pp. 8–12, February–March 1998
  • "Universal Human Rights and 'Human Rights in Islam,'" Midstream (New York) February/March 1999, pp. 2–7
  • "Islamism Grows Stronger at the United Nations," Middle East Quarterly, September 1999, vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 59–64
  • "Syria's Blood Libel Revival at the UN: 1991–2000," Midstream, February/March 2000
  • "Jihad and Jihadist Bombers; What’s in a name?", David G. Littman, National Review, 9 September 2002
  • "The Genocidal Hamas Charter; Yasser Arafat & co.", David G. Littman, National Review, 26 September 2002
  • "The Truth About the Mideast; Fourteen fundamental facts about Israel and Palestine", by David G. Littman, National Review, 7 October 2002
  • "The Forgotten Refugees; An exchange of populations", David G. Littman, National Review, 3 December 2002
  • "Human Rights and Human Wrongs; Sharia can’t be an exception to international human-rights norms", by David G. Littman, National Review, 19 January 2003
  • "Islamists' Perpetual Jihad," David G. Littman, FrontPageMagazine, 15 August 2003
  • "Yasser's Terrorist Jesus," by David G. Littman, FrontPageMagazine, 15 November 2004
  • The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims, edited by Robert Spencer, "Human Rights and Human Wrongs at the United Nations," Part 5 (pp. 305–472), David G. Littman, Prometheus Books, ISBN 1-59102-249-5, contributor of multiple chapters, 2005
  • Copts in Egypt: A Christian Minority under Siege; papers presented at the First International Coptic Symposium, Zürich, September 23–25, 2004, Martyn Thomas, Adly A. Youssef, "Need of a State for all Citizens," by David Littman, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, ISBN 3-85710-040-0, ISBN 978-3-85710-040-6, 2006
  • "Human Rights: Universal or Islamic?", David G. Littman, American Thinker, 25 August 2006
  • Encyclopedia of the Jewish diaspora: origins, experiences, and culture, Volume 1, M. Avrum Ehrlich, p. 382, "Modern Jewish Refugees from Arab Countries," David G. Littman, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-85109-873-9, ISBN 978-1-85109-873-6, 2008
  • "L'Exil au Maghreb, La condition juive dans l'Islam, 1148–1912", Paul B. Fenton et David G. Littman, 17 November 2010, Presses de l'Université Paris-Sorbonne, ISBN 978-2-84050-725-3

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "David G. Littman; Biography". Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  2. ^ "R.I.P. David Littman". Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Dacey, Austin (3 December 2008). "Sensitive Words".  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Moroccan connection".  
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Conferring the "Hero of Silence" Order on David G. Littman; "Operation Mural": Casablanca 1961; Presentation by President Shimon Peres". New English Review. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Medick, Veit (13 March 2009). "Germany Asked to Boycott UN Racism Conference".  
  7. ^ "Religious Freedom to Get Spotlight Conference to Focus on Persecuted Church", The State, p. B2, 12 March 1998, accessed 12 January 2010
  8. ^ West, Diane, The Death of the Grown-up (MacMillan, 2007), 171
  9. ^ Thomas, Martyn and Adly A. Youssef, Copts in Egypt: A Christian Minority under Siege, (Orthdruk Bialystok, 2006), 190; David Gerald Littman: Historian, born in London, received his BA and MA degrees in modern history and political science at Trinity College Dublin.
  10. ^ "David Littman, an historian, is a representative to the United Nations (Geneva) of the Association for World Education." in Littman, David, "Islamism Grows Stronger at the United Nations", National Review Online, 7 October 2007
  11. ^ , p. 38, Jacques Ellul, Presses universitaires de France, 2004, ISBN 2-13-054215-8, ISBN 978-2-13-054215-5, accessed January 13, 2010Islam et judéo-christianisme: texte inédit: Intervention philosophique
  12. ^ a b c Website of David Littman's wife
  13. ^ Littman Library of Jewish Civilization
  14. ^ [Mideast file, Volume 5, Issue 4, Mekhon Shiloaḥ le-ḥeḳer ha-Mizraḥ ha-tikhon ṿe-Afriḳah, Learned Information, 1986, accessed 14 January 2010]
  15. ^ Sheleg, Yair (17 December 2007). "Codename: Operation Mural".  
  16. ^ , p. 331, Bat Ye'or, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 2005, ISBN 0-8386-4077-X, 9780838640777, accessed January 13, 2010Eurabia: the Euro-Arab axis
  17. ^ "NATIONS UNIES : devant la sous-commission des droits de l'homme Le délégué soviétique s'est exposé à l'accusation d'antisémitisme," Le Monde, 22 August 1987, accessed 12 January 2010
  18. ^ "La réunion de la sous-commission des droits de l'homme de l'ONU La "glasnost", enfin, mais toujours sélective," Le Monde, 9 September 1988, accessed 12 January 2010
  19. ^ , August 13, 1989, accessed January 12, 2010Le Monde"ONU: la disparition de M. Mazilu Le silence du vice-président roumain de la sous-commission des droits de l'homme...",
  20. ^ , September 3, 2001, accessed January 12, 2010Le Monde"En vertu d'une résolution de la sous-commission des droits de l'homme L'ONU devrait se saisir de la question du Tibet",
  21. ^ Bostom, Andrew G., "Confronting Hamas' Genocidal Jew-Hatred", American Thinker, 2 January 2009, accessed 12 January 2010
  22. ^ Avni, Benny, "Effort Afoot To Expel Jewish Group From U.N.," The New York Sun, 4 June 2008, accessed 12 January 2009
  23. ^ , October 2, 1990, accessed January 12, 2010The Jerusalem Post"The Fate of 20 Jewish Women in Syria,"
  24. ^ Canadian Jewish Chronicle (Winnipeg), p. A21, March 13, 1991, accessed January 12, 2010
  25. ^ , August 16, 1991, accessed January 12, 2010The Jerusalem Post"Lebanese Jews' Release Sought in Prisoner Deal,"
  26. ^ , August 25, 1991, accessed January 12, 2010The Jerusalem Post"Syrian Jews,"
  27. ^ "U.N. gets plea on Jewish hostages," The Washington Times, 26 December 1991, accessed 12 January 2010
  28. ^ , March 17, 1997, accessed January 12, 2010The Jerusalem Post"PA official: Israel infected Palestinians with AIDS,"
  29. ^ , April 11, 1997, accessed January 12, 2010The Jerusalem Post"UN won't counter Palestinian AIDS allegation",
  30. ^ "U.S., Israel pull out of Durban meet," The Hindu, September 3, 2001, accessed January 12, 2010
  31. ^ , December 10, 2003, accessed January 12, 2010Herald-JournalHerald-Journal, "Nationalist Billionaire Elected to powerful Swiss Cabinet post",
  32. ^ , p. 244, Bruce Bawer,Surrender: Appeasing Islam, Sacrificing Freedom Random House, Inc., 2009, ISBN 0-385-52398-X, 9780385523981, accessed 14 January 2010
  33. ^ , p. 178, Diana West, Macmillan, 2007, ISBN 0-312-34048-6, ISBN 978-0-312-34048-3, accessed January 13, 2010The death of the grown-up: how America's arrested development is bringing down Western civilization
  34. ^ Beliën, Paul, "Eurabia Scholars Gather in The Hague," Canada Free Press, 20 January 2006, accessed 12 January 2010
  35. ^ Bayevsky, Anne, "UN-speakable hypocrisy", The New York Daily News, 2 June 2008, accessed 12 January 2009
  36. ^ , July 4, 2008, accessed January 13, 2009Der Spiegel"Debatte über Uno-Gremium; Religionsfreiheit vor Menschenrecht?",
  37. ^ "Polèmica per la llei islàmica al Consell de Drets Humans", El Periódico de Catalunya, 19 June 2008, accessed 13 January 2009
  38. ^ Lindeborg, Lisbeth, "Rättigheter under attack", Sydsvenskan, 9 December 2008, accessed 12 January 2010
  39. ^ , pp. 76–77, Robert Spencer, Regnery Publishing, 2008, ISBN 1-59698-556-9, ISBN 978-1-59698-556-8, accessed January 13, 2010Stealth jihad: how radical Islam is subverting America without guns or bombs
  40. ^ Simon, Anne-Catherine, "Kritik an Sharia oder Fatwas verboten," Die Presse, 1 July 2008, accessed 13 January 2009
  41. ^ , April 18, 2009, accessed January 12, 2009TrouwDacey, Austin, "Wat was hier aan de hand?",
  42. ^ Edwards, Steven, "Jewish speaker outraged after debate cut short," Ottawa Citizen, 9 March 2009, accessed 13 January 2010
  43. ^ "Damned If You Do; Historians dare to criticize Islamic dhimmitude at Georgetown and pay a price," The National Review, 29 October 2002, accessed 12 January 2010
  44. ^ , November 8, 2002, accessed January 12, 2010The Jerusalem Post"Stateside: News from Jewish America",
  45. ^ "Evidence of Bigotry Absent from Lectures," The Hoya, 19 November 2002, accessed 12 January 2010
  46. ^ Citation in: Proceedings of the Twelfth British Conference on Judeo-Spanish Studies (2001) edited by Hilary Pomeroy, Michael Alpert, Institute of Jewish Studies, Studies in Judaica, Brill
  47. ^ The Century of Moses MontefioreAmazon link for
  48. ^ "The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims (Hardcover)", Amazon, accessed January 12, 2010
  49. ^ "Book Review: Addressing Muslim rage; Myth of Islamic Tolerance," August 26, 2005, accessed January 12, 2010
  50. ^ , January 2, 1997, accessed January 12, 2010The Jerusalem Post"Article: Religion of War,"
  51. ^ , March 22, 1997, accessed January 1, 2010History: Review of New Books"Article: The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude, Seventh-Twentieth Centuries. (book reviews)",
  52. ^ , Issue 2, by David Littman, Martin Gilbert, World Union for Progressive Judaism, Anatoly Shcharansky, Published under the auspices of the World Union for Progressive Judaism, 1986, accessed January 14, 2010Human rights and human wrongs
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