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Title: Deported  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Richard Rober
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Not to be confused with extradition.

Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.[1] Today the expulsion of foreign nationals is usually called deportation, whereas the expulsion of nationals is called banishment, exile, or penal transportation.[2] Deportation is an ancient practice: Khosrau I, Sassanid King of Persia, deported 292,000 citizens, slaves, and conquered people to the new city of Ctesiphon in 542 C.E.[3] Britain deported religious objectors and criminals to America in large numbers before 1776,[4] and transported them to Australia between 1788 and 1868.

Military occupation

Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive. ... The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.

External deportation

All countries reserve the right of deportation of foreigners, even those who are longtime residents. In general, foreigners who have committed serious crimes, entered the country illegally, overstayed their visa, or otherwise lost their legal status to remain in the country may be administratively removed or deported.[6]

In many cases, deportation is done by the government's executive apparatus, and as such is often subject to a simpler legal process (or none), with reduced or no right to trial, legal representation or appeal due to the subject's lack of citizenship. For example, in the 1930s, more stringent enforcement of immigration laws were ordered by the executive branch of the U.S. government which led to the removal of up to 2 million Mexican nationals from the United States.[7] In 1954, the executive branch of the U.S. government implemented Operation Wetback, a program created in response to public hysteria about immigration and immigrants.[8] Operation Wetback led to the deportation of nearly 1.3 million Mexicans from the United States.[9][10]

Already in natural law of the 18th century it was agreed upon that expulsion of a nation from the territory which it inhabits is not allowable.[11] Article 18 of the United Nations' Draft Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind declares "large scale" arbitrary or forcible deportation to be a crime against humanity.[12]

Deportation often requires a specific process that must be validated by a court or senior government official. It should therefore not be confused with administrative removal, which is the process of a country refusing to allow an individual to enter that country.[13]

Internal deportation

Deportation can also happen within a state, when (for example) an individual or a group of people is forcibly resettled to a different part of the country. If ethnic groups are affected by this, it may also be referred to as population transfer. The rationale is often that these groups might assist the enemy in war or insurrection. For example, the American state of Georgia deported 400 female mill workers during the Civil War on the suspicion they were Northern sympathizers.[14]

During World War II, Volga Germans, Chechens, Crimean Tatars and others in the Soviet Union were deported by Joseph Stalin (see Population transfer in the Soviet Union), with some estimating the number of deaths from the deportation to be as high as 1 in 3.[15][16] The European Parliament recognized this as an act of genocide on February 26, 2004.[17] After World War II approximately 50,000 Hungarians were deported from South Slovakia by Czechoslovak authorities to the Czech borderlands in order to alter the ethnic composition of South Slovakia.[18] Many Japanese and Japanese Americans on the West Coast, as well as other Italian American and German American families were forcibly resettled in internment camps inside the United States of America by President Franklin Roosevelt.[19]

In the 19th century, the federal government of the United States (particularly during the administration of President Andrew Jackson) deported numerous Native American tribes. The most infamous of these deportations became known as the Trail of Tears. American state and local authorities also practiced deportation of undesirables, criminals, union organizers, and others. In the late 19th and early 20th century, deportation of union members and labor leaders was not uncommon during strikes or labor disputes.[20] For an example, see the Bisbee Deportation.

Deportation in the Holocaust

Nazi policies openly deported homosexuals, Jews, Poles, and Roma from their native places of residence to extermination camps or concentration camps set up at a considerable distance from their original residences. This was the policy known as the "Final Solution". The euphemism "deportation", occurring frequently in accounts of the Holocaust in various locations, thus means in effect "sent to their deaths" — as distinct from deportations in other times and places.

Soviet deportations

Deportations were used as a part of the Soviet Union's attempts, along with instituting the Russian language as the only working language and other such tactics, at Russification of its occupied territories (such as the Baltic nations and Bessarabia). In this way areas were depopulated of their ethnic populations and repopulated with Russian nationals. The people deported were sent to remote, scarcely populated, resettlements or to GULAG labour camps. It has been estimated that, in their entirety, internal forced migrations affected some 6 million people.[21][22] Of these, some 1 to 1.5 million perished as a result.[23][24]

See also



  • Aguila, Jaime R. "Book Reviews: Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s. By Francisco E. Balderrama and Raymond Rodríguez." Journal of San Diego History. 52:3-4 (Summer-Fall 2006).
  • Balderrama, Francisco and Rodriguez, Raymond. Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8263-1575-5.
  • Campana, Aurélie. "Case Study: The Massive Deportation of the Chechen People: How and why Chechens were Deported." Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. November 2007. Accessed August 11, 2008.
  • Christensen, Peter. The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environments in the History of the Middle East, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1500. Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1993. ISBN 87-7289-259-5.
  • Conquest, Robert. The Nation Killers. New York: Macmillan, 1970. ISBN 0-333-10575-3
  • Daniels, Roger. Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. ISBN 0-06-050577-X
  • Dillman, Caroline Matheny. The Roswell Mills and A Civil War Tragedy: Excerpts From Days Gone by in Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia. Vol. 1. Roswell, Ga.: Chattahoochee Press, 1996. ISBN 0-9634253-0-7
  • Fischer, Ruth and Leggett, John C. Stalin and German Communism: A Study in the Origins of the State Party. Edison, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2006. ISBN 0-87855-822-5
  • Forsythe, David P. and Lawson, Edward. Encyclopedia of Human Rights. 2d ed. Florence, Ky.: Taylor & Francis, 1996.
  • Fragomen, Austin T. and Bell, Steven C. Immigration Fundamentals: A Guide to Law and Practice. New York: Practising Law Institute, 1996. ISBN 0-87224-093-2
  • García, Juan Ramon. Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954. Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1980. ISBN 0-313-21353-4.
  • Gibney,Matthew J. and Hansen, Randall. "Deportation and the Liberal State: The Involuntary Return of Asylum Seekers and Unlawful Migrants in Canada, the UK, and Germany." New Issues in Refugee Research: Working Paper Series No. 77. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2003.
  • Gutiérrez, David G. Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1995. ISBN 0-520-20219-8
  • Henckaerts, Jean-Marie. Mass Expulsion in Modern International Law and Practice. Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1995.
  • Hing, Bill Ong. Defining America Through Immigration Policy. Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press, 2004. ISBN 1-59213-233-2
  • Hitt, Michael D. Charged with Treason: The Ordeal of 400 Mill Workers During Military Operations in Roswell, Georgia, 1864-1865. Monroe, N.Y.: Library Research Associates, 1992. ISBN 0-912526-55-6
  • International Law Commission. United Nations. Yearbook of the International Law Commission 1996: Report of the Commission to the General Assembly on the Work of Its 48th Session. New York: United Nations Publications, 2000. ISBN 92-1-133600-7
  • Jaimoukha, Amjad M. The Chechens: A Handbook. Florence, Ky.: Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0-415-32328-2
  • Kennedy, David M. Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. Cambridge, Mass.: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-503834-7
  • Kleveman, Lutz. The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia. Jackson, Tenn.: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003. ISBN 0-87113-906-5
  • "The Law of Necessity As Applied in the Bisbee Deportation Case." Arizona Law Review. 3:2 (1961).
  • "Lewis Attacks Deportation of Leaders by West Virginia Authorities." New York Times. July 17, 1921.
  • Lindquist, John H. and Fraser, James. "A Sociological Interpretation of the Bisbee Deportation." Pacific Historical Review. 37:4 (November 1968).
  • López, Ian F. Haney. Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice. New ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2004. ISBN 0-674-01629-7
  • Martin, MaryJoy. The Corpse On Boomerang Road: Telluride's War on Labor, 1899-1908. Lake City, Colo.: Western Reflections Publishing Co., 2004. ISBN 1-932738-02-9
  • Mata, Albert G. "Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954 by Juan Ramon García." Contemporary Sociology. 1:5 (September 1983)
  • Mawdsley, Evan. The Stalin Years: The Soviet Union 1929-1953. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7190-6377-9
  • McKay, Robert R. "The Federal Deportation Campaign in Texas: Mexican Deportation from the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the Great Depression." Borderlands Journal. (Fall 1981).
  • Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-674-00994-0
  • June 4, 2008.
  • Silverberg, Louis G. "Citizens' Committees: Their Role in Industrial Conflict." Public Opinion Quarterly. 5:1 (March 1941).
  • Suggs, Jr., George G. Colorado's War on Militant Unionism: James H. Peabody and the Western Federation of Miners. 2nd ed. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8061-2396-6
  • President's Mediation Commission. Report on the Bisbee Deportations Made by the President's Mediation Commission to the President of the United States. Washington, D.C.: President's Mediation Commission, November 6, 1917.
  • Valenciana, Christine. "Unconstitutional Deportation of Mexican Americans During the 1930s: A Family History and Oral History." Multicultural Education. Spring 2006.
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