World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Dibao

Article Id: WHEBN0033632179
Reproduction Date:

Title: Dibao  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Woosung Road, Village head, Qing dynasty, Red Turban Rebellion (1854–56), Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet
Collection: Qing Dynasty
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Dibao

Dibao (ti-pao),[n 1] sometimes called headmen[1] or constables,[2] were local officials in Qing and early Republican China, typically selected from among the prominent landowners.[3] Working in communities of around 100 households, they were charged with overseeing boundaries and land disputes.[3] He notarized all real estate deeds on a commission basis and collected the land tax,[3] as well as overseeing minor punishment such as the cangue.[2]

As foreign missionaries and businessmen gained the right to hold property in China from the "unequal treaties", the local headmen could be caught between them and their superiors in the Chinese hierarchy, for instance during the construction of the Woosung Road.[1]

The dibao administered villages in China proper. In Manchuria, a separate office called the shoubao (shou-pao) was established in AD 1725.[4]

The dibao were the successors of the Qin and Han tingzhang,[n 2] the Sui and Tang lizheng,[n 3] and Song baozheng.[n 4] They were occasionally also known as baozheng or as dijia[n 5][5]

After 1900, they began to be replaced by less autonomous cunzheng,[n 6][6] although this transition wasn't completed until the Republican era.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Chinese: 地保; pinyin: dìbǎo; Wade–Giles: ti4-pao3; literally: "land guarantor"; also romanized as tepao.
  2. ^ simplified Chinese: 亭长; traditional Chinese: 亭長; pinyin: tíngzhǎng; Wade–Giles: t'ing2-chang3.
  3. ^ Chinese: 里正; pinyin: lǐzhèng; Wade–Giles: li3-cheng4.
  4. ^ Chinese: 保正; pinyin: bǎozhèng; Wade–Giles: pao3-cheng4.
  5. ^ Chinese: 地甲; pinyin: dìjiǎ; Wade–Giles: ti4-chia3.
  6. ^ Chinese: 村正; pinyin: cūnzhèng; Wade–Giles: ts'un1-cheng4; literally: "village head".

References

  1. ^ a b Pong, David. "Confucian Patriotism and the Destruction of the Woosung Railway, 1877", p. 649. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. VII, No. 4. Cambridge University Press, 1973.
  2. ^ a b Bernhardt, Kathryn et al. Civil Law in Qing and Republican China, p. 117. Stanford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8047-3779-7. Accessed 4 Nov 2011.
  3. ^ a b c Henriot, Christian. "Invisible Deaths, Silent Deaths: 'Bodies without Masters' in Republican Shanghai". Journal of Social History, Winter 2009, p. 433.
  4. ^ Isett, Christopher Mills. State, Peasant, and Merchant in Qing Manchuria, 1644–1862, pp. 63 ff. Stanford University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-8047-5271-0. Accessed 4 Nov 2011.
  5. ^ Nciku.com. "地保." Accessed 4 Nov 2011.
  6. ^ Liu, Chang. Peasants and Revolution in Rural China: Rural Political Change in the North China Plain and the Yangzi Delta, 1850–1949, p. 58. Routledge Studies in the Chinese Economy, vol. 25. Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0-415-42176-4. Accessed 4 Nov 2011.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.