World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Diesel exhaust

Article Id: WHEBN0001202358
Reproduction Date:

Title: Diesel exhaust  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Black carbon, Aethalometer, Diesel fuel, DPM, Diesel
Collection: Air Pollution, Air Pollution Control Systems, Diesel Engines
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Diesel exhaust

Class 55 Deltic diesel locomotive with their characteristic dense exhaust when starting a train

Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, regardless of the fuel type or rate of consumption, or speed of engine operation (e.g., idling or at speed), and regardless of whether the engine is in an on-road vehicle, farm vehicle, locomotive, marine vessel, or stationary generator or other application. The physical and chemical conditions that exist inside any such diesel engines under any conditions differ considerably from spark-ignition engines, because, by design, diesel engine power is not controlled by the air/fuel mixture (as in most gasoline engines), but rather it is directly controlled by the fuel supply.[1] For instance, diesel engines generally produce 28 times less carbon monoxide than gasoline engines, as diesels burn their fuel in excess air even at full load.[2][3]

However, the lean-burning nature of diesel engines and the high temperatures and pressures of the combustion process result in significant production of gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx), an air pollutant that constitutes a unique challenge with regard to their reduction. Total nitrogen oxides from petrol cars have decreased by around 96% through adoption of exhaust catalytic converters as of 2012, while diesel cars still produce nitrogen oxides at a similar level to those bought a decade and a half ago under real world tests; hence, diesel cars emit around 20 times more nitrogen oxides than petrol cars. Modern on-road diesel engines typically use selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems to meet emissions laws, as other methods such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cannot adequately reduce NOx to meet the newer standards applicable in many jurisdictions.

Moreover, the fine particles (fine particulate matter) in diesel exhaust (e.g., soot, sometimes visible as opaque dark-colored smoke) has traditionally been of greater concern, as it presents different health concerns and is rarely produced in significant quantities by spark-ignition engines. Diesel engines produce significant amounts of especially harmful particulate contaminants when running without enough oxygen to fully combust the fuel; when a diesel engine runs at idle, enough oxygen is usually present to burn the fuel completely. As a result of the particulate emissions, exhaust from diesel vehicles has been reported to be significantly more harmful than those from petrol vehicles.

Diesel exhausts have been known for their characteristic odors, which changed when the World Health Organization.

Diesel exhaust pollution is thought to account for around one quarter of the pollution in the air in previous decades, and a high share of sickness caused by automotive pollution.

Contents

  • Definition and composition 1
    • Chemical classes 1.1
    • Specific chemicals 1.2
  • Regulation 2
    • International and federal 2.1
    • Miscellaneous 2.2
  • Health concerns 3
    • General concerns 3.1
    • Occupational health effects 3.2
    • Concerns regarding particulates 3.3
    • Specific effects 3.4
    • Variation with engine conditions 3.5
  • Other effects 4
  • Remedies 5
    • General 5.1
    • Selective non-catalytic reduction 5.2
    • Exhaust gas recirculation 5.3
    • Combined systems 5.4
    • Other remedies 5.5
  • Further reading 6
  • See also 7
  • References and notes 8
  • External links 9

Definition and composition

Diesel exhaust is the exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, regardless of the fuel or fuel use, or speed of engine operation (e.g., idling or at speed), and regardless of whether the engine is in an on-road vehicle, farm vehicle, locomotive, marine vessel, or stationary generator or other application. The physical and chemical conditions that exist inside any such diesel engines under any conditions differ considerably from spark-ignition engines; diesel engine power is directly controlled by the fuel supply, not by control of the air/fuel mixture as in conventional gasoline engines. As a result of these differences, diesel engines generally produce a different array of pollutants than spark-driven engines, differences that are sometimes qualitative (what pollutants are there, and what are not), but more often quantitative (how much of particular pollutants or pollutant classes are present in each). For instance, very little carbon monoxide is produced, in general, in diesel engines, as they burn their fuel in excess air even at full load.[4]

The lean-burning nature of diesel engines and the high temperatures and pressures of the combustion process result in significant production of gaseous nitrogen oxide air pollutants. While total nitrogen oxides from petrol cars have decreased by around 96% through adoption of exhaust catalytic converters (as of 2012), while diesel cars still produce nitrogen oxides at a similar level to those bought a decade and a half ago under real world tests; hence, resulting in diesel cars emit around 20 times more nitrogen oxides than petrol cars.[5] [6] Auxiliary diesel systems designed to remediate the nitrogen oxide pollutants are described in a separate section below.

More critically, diesel exhaust contains fine particles (fine particulate matter, e.g., soot, sometimes visible as opaque dark-colored smoke), and this is of greater concern as it is rarely produced in significant quantities by spark-ignition engines, and the particulates present significant, distinct health concerns (see below). These especially harmful particulate contaminants are at their peak when such engines are run without sufficient oxygen to fully combust the fuel; when a diesel engine runs at idle, enough oxygen is usually present to burn the fuel completely.[7] (The oxygen requirement in non-idling engines is usually mitigated using turbocharging.)

Diesel exhausts, long known for their characteristic odors, changed significantly with the reduction of United Nations), as present in their List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens.[8]

Chemical classes

The following are classes of chemical compounds that have been found in diesel exhaust.[9] [10]

Class of chemical contaminant Note
antimony compounds Toxicity similar to arsenic
poisoning
beryllium compounds IARC Group 1 carcinogens
chromium compounds IARC Group 3 carcinogens
cobalt compounds
cyanide compounds
dioxins and dibenzofurans
manganese compounds
mercury compounds IARC Group 3 carcinogens
nitrogen oxides
polycyclic organic matter, including
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
selenium compounds
sulfur compounds

Specific chemicals

The following are classes of specific chemicals that have been found in diesel exhaust.[9] [10]

Chemical contaminant Note Concentration, ppm
acetaldehyde IARC Group 2B carcinogens
acrolein IARC Group 3 carcinogens
aniline IARC Group 3 carcinogens
arsenic IARC Group 1 carcinogens,
endocrine disruptor
benzene IARC Group 1 carcinogens
biphenyl Mild toxicity
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Endocrine disruptor
1,3-Butadiene IARC Group 2A carcinogens
cadmium IARC Group 1 carcinogens,
endocrine disruptor
chlorine Byproduct of urea
injection
chlorobenzene "[L]ow to moderate"
toxicity
cresol§
dibutyl phthalate Endocrine disruptor
1,8-dinitropyrene Carcinogen
ethylbenzene
formaldehyde IARC Group 1 carcinogens
inorganic lead Endocrine disruptor
methanol
methyl ethyl ketone
naphthalene IARC Group 2B carcinogens
nickel IARC Group 2B carcinogens
3-Nitrobenzanthrone Strongly carcinogenic 0.6-6.6
4-nitrobiphenyl 2.2
phenol
phosphorus
Pyrene 3532–8002
Benzo(e)pyrene 487–946
Benzo(a)pyrene IARC Group 1 carcinogen 208–558
Fluoranthene 3399–7321
propionaldehyde
styrene IARC Group 2B carcinogens
toluene IARC Group 3 carcinogens
xylene§ IARC Group 3 carcinogens

§Includes all regioisomers of this aromatic compound. See ortho-, meta-, and para-isomer descriptions at each compound's article.

Regulation

International and federal

Miscellaneous

To rapidly reduce particulate matter from heavy-duty diesel engines in California, the California Air Resources Board created the Carl Moyer Program to provide funding for upgrading engines ahead of emissions regulations. In 2008 the California Air Resources Board also implemented the 2008 California Statewide Truck and Bus Rule which requires all heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses, with a few exceptions, that operate in California to either retrofit or replace engines in order to reduce diesel particulate matter. The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce diesel exhaust exposure in underground metal and nonmetal mines; on September 7, 2005, MSHA published a notice in the Federal Register proposing to postpone the effective date from January 2006 until January 2011.

Health concerns

General concerns

Emissions from diesel vehicles have been reported to be significantly more harmful than those from petrol ones.[11] Diesel combustion exhaust is a source of atmospheric United Nations), as present in their List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens.<[8] Diesel exhaust pollution is thought to account for around one quarter of the pollution in the air in previous decades, and a high share of sickness caused by automotive pollution.[16]

Occupational health effects

Exposure to diesel exhaust and diesel particulate matter (DPM) is an occupational hazard to truckers, railroad workers, and miners using diesel-powered equipment in underground mines. Adverse health effects have also been observed in the general population at ambient atmospheric particle concentrations well below the concentrations in occupational settings.

In March 2012, U.S. government scientists showed that underground miners exposed to high levels of diesel fumes have a threefold increased risk for contracting lung cancer compared with those exposed to low levels. The $11.5 million Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) followed 12,315 miners, controlling for key carcinogens such as cigarette smoke, radon, and asbestos. This allowed scientists to isolate the effects of diesel fumes.[17][18]

For over 10 years, concerns have been raised in the USA regarding children's exposure to DPM as they ride diesel-powered

  • Diesel Retrofit in Europe.
  • NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Topic: Diesel Exhaust
  • Diesel Particulate Matter, a case study at www.defendingscience.org
  • Clean School Bus USA, EPA Initiative
  • Weight of the Evidence or Wait for the Evidence? Protecting Underground Miners from Diesel Particulate Matter Article by Celeste Monforton. American Journal of Public Health, February 2006.
  • Diesel exhaust -- peer reviewed studies by Health Effects Institute
  • U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Safety and Health Topics: Diesel Exhaust
  • Partial List of Chemicals Associated with Diesel Exhaust
  • Diesel Exhaust Particulates: Reasonably Anticipated to Be A Human Carcinogen
  • Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftetreatment System National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Scientific Study of Harmful Effects of Diesel Exhaust: Acute Inflammatory Responses in the Airways and Peripheral Blood After Short-Term Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Healthy Human Volunteers
  • Diesel exhaust: what you need to know
  • Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust - fact sheet by Cal/EPA and American Lung Association

External links

  1. ^ Song, Chunsham (2000). Chemistry of Diesel Fuels. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press. p. 4. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  2. ^ Krivoshto, Irina N.; Richards, John R., Albertson Timothy E. and Derlet, Robert W. (January 2008). "The Toxicity of Diesel Exhaust: Implications for Primary Care". Medical Journal. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. pp. 55–62. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Gajendra Babu, M.K., Subramanian, K.A. (18 June 2013). "Alternative Transportation Fuels: Utilisation in Combustion Engines". Book. CRC Press. p. 230. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
  4. ^ Majewski, W. Addy (2012). "What Are Diesel Emissions". Ecopoint Inc. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  5. ^ Fuller, Gary (Jul 8, 2012). "Diesel cars emit more nitrogen oxides than petrol cars". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  6. ^ Lean, Geoffrey (Jul 19, 2013). "Why is killer diesel still poisoning our air?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Omidvarbornaa, Hamid; Kumara, Ashok & Kim, Dong-Shik (2015). "Recent Studies on Soot Modeling for Diesel Combustion". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 48: 635–647.  
  8. ^ a b IARC. "Diesel Engine Exhaust Carcinogenic" (Press release). International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Retrieved June 12, 2012. After a week-long meeting of international experts, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO), today classified diesel exhaust as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on enough evidence that exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. 
  9. ^ a b "EPA Report on diesel emissions" (PDF). EPA. 2002. p. 113. Retrieved 19 August 2013. ]
  10. ^ a b Lippmann, Morton, ed. (2009). Environmental Toxicants (PDF).  
  11. ^ Vidal, John (Jan 27, 2013). "Diesel fumes more damaging to health than petrol engines". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  12. ^ a b "Diesel exhausts do cause cancer, says WHO - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-06-12. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  13. ^ a b "WHO: Diesel Exhaust Causes Lung Cancer". Medpage Today. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  14. ^ a b Nawrot, Perez, Künzli, Munters, Nemery. Public health importance of triggers of myocardial infarction: comparative risk assessment The Lancet, Volume 377, Issue 9767, Pages 732 - 740, 26 February 2011 t doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62296-9: "Taking into account the OR and the prevalences of exposure, the highest PAF was estimated for traffic exposure (7.4%)... "
    "... [O]dds ratios and frequencies of each trigger were used to compute population-attributable fractions (PAFs), which estimate the proportion of cases that could be avoided if a risk factor were removed. PAFs depend not only on the risk factor strength at the individual level but also on its frequency in the community. ... [T]he exposure prevalence for triggers in the relevant control time window ranged from 0.04% for cocaine use to 100% for air pollution. ... Taking into account the OR and the prevalences of exposure, the highest PAF was estimated for traffic exposure (7.4%) ...
  15. ^ a b Power; Weisskopf; Alexeeff; Coull; Spiro; Schwartz (May 2011). "Traffic-related air pollution and cognitive function in a cohort of older men" 119 (5). pp. 682–7.  
  16. ^ Health Concerns Associated with Excessive Idling North Central Texas Council of Governments, 2008.
  17. ^ Attfield, M. D.; Schleiff, P. L.; Lubin, J. H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P. A.; Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J. B.; Silverman, D. T. (5 March 2012). "The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Cohort Mortality Study With Emphasis on Lung Cancer". JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute.  
  18. ^ Silverman, D. T.; Samanic, C. M.; Lubin, J. H.; Blair, A. E.; Stewart, P. A.; Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J. B.; Rothman, N.; Schleiff, P. L.; Travis, W. D.; Ziegler, R. G.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M. D. (5 March 2012). "The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Nested Case-Control Study of Lung Cancer and Diesel Exhaust". JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute.  
  19. ^ Solomon, Gina; Campbell, Todd (January 2001). "No Breathing in the Aisles. Diesel Exhaust Inside School Buses". NRDC.org. Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  20. ^ "Clean School Bus". EPA.gov. United States Government. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  21. ^ Omidvarbornaa, Hamid; Kumara, Ashok & Kim, Dong-Shik (2014). "Characterization of Particulate Matter Emitted from Transit Buses Fueled with B20 in Idle Modes". Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 2 (4, December): 2335–2342.  
  22. ^ Ole Raaschou-Nielsen; et al. (July 10, 2013). "Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)". The Lancet Oncology 14 (9): 813–22.  
  23. ^ David I. Bernstein,Diesel Exhaust Exposure, Wheezing and Sneezing. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2012 Jul; 4(4): 178–183. doi: 10.4168/aair.2012.4.4.178. PMCID: PMC3378923
  24. ^ [3]
  25. ^ [4]
  26. ^ Int Panis, L; Rabl; De Nocker, L; Torfs, R (2002). "Diesel or Petrol ? An environmental comparison hampered by uncertainty". Mitteilungen Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik, Publisher: Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik 81 (1): 48–54. 
  27. ^ "On-line measurements of diesel nanoparticle composition and volatility". Dx.doi.org. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  28. ^ "Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees : Scientific Reports". Nature.com.  
  29. ^ a b Guan, B; Zhan, R; Lin, H; Huang, Z. (2014). ""Review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NOx from diesel engine exhaust"". Applied Thermal Engineering 66: 395–414. Retrieved 22 October 2015.  (subscription required)
  30. ^ "What is SCR? | Diesel Technology Forum". Dieselforum.org. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 
  31. ^ a b Bennett, Sean (2004). Medium/Heavy Duty Truck Engines, Fuel & Computerized Management Systems 2nd Edition, ISBN 1401814999.
  32. ^ a b "Technology to Reduce Emissions in Large Engines" (PDF). Deere.com. Retrieved 2015-10-22. 

References and notes

See also

  • Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration. Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure of Underground Metal and Nonmetal Miners: Final Rule, January 19, 2001. Federal Register 66(13):5706.
  • Monforton, C (2006). "Weight of the Evidence or Wait for the Evidence? Protecting Underground Miners from Diesel Particulate Matter". American Journal of Public Health 96 (2): 271–276.  
  • Steenland, K; Silverman, DT; Hornung, DW (1990). "Case control study of lung cancer and truck driving in the Teamsters union". American Journal of Public Health 80: 670–674.  
  • Steenland, K; Silverman, DT; Zaebst, D (1992). "Exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry and possible relationships with lung cancer". American Journal of Industrial Medicine 21: 887–890.  
  • Bruske-Holhfield, I; Mohner, M; Ahrens, W; et al. (1999). "Lung cancer risk in male workers occupationally exposed to diesel motor emissions in Germany". American Journal of Industrial Medicine 36: 405–414. 
  • Wichmann, H.-E. Abschaetzung positiver gesundheitlicher Auswirkungen durch den Einsatz von Partikelfiltern bei Dieselfahrzeugen in Deutschland Umweltbundesamt Berlin 2003. Report 2352, especially page 32
  • Umweltbundesamt Berlin Abgasgesetzgebung Pkw, leichte Nfz und Lkw – Fortschreibung der Grenzwerte bei DieselfahrzeugenFuture Diesel. 2003. Report 2353, especially page 25

Further reading

Other remedies

John Deere, the farm equipment manufacturer is implementing such a combined SNCR-EGR design, in a 9 liter "inline 6" diesel engine that involves both system types, a PM filter and additional oxidation catalyst technologies.[32] The combined system incorporates two turbochargers, the first on the exhaust manifold, with variable geometry and containing the EGR system; and a second a fixed geometry turbocharger. Recirculated exhaust gas and the compressed air from the turbochargers have separate coolers, and air merges before entering the intake manifold, and all subsystems are controlled by a central engine control unit that optimizes minimization of pollutants released in the exhaust gas.[32]

Combined systems

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is principle of diesel emissions remediation that involves recirculating exhaust gas from the exhaust manifold of a diesel engine through a valve, often termed the EGR valve, that is timed with intake valves to introduce some exhaust back into the cylinder during the diesel compression and the power stroke. Another way of achieving an EGR-like effect is to have an overlap whereby the intake and exhaust valves remain open simultaneously for a period. In either case, less fuel is used on the power stroke, thereby avoiding engine knock, and letting the engine run on a much leaner fuel to air ratio; together, these give the engine better fuel economy and result in less gaseous emissions. However, with such systems there is most often greater particulate content in the exhaust, which necessitates use of particulate matter (PM) filterd in the exhaust.[31] EGR needs a pressure differential across the exhaust manifold and intake manifold, which can be met by such engineering as use of a variable geometry turbocharger, which has inlet guide vanes on the turbine to build exhaust backpressure in the exhaust manifold directing exhaust gas to the intake manifold.[31] It also requires additional external piping and valving, and so requires additional maintenance.

Exhaust gas recirculation

[30] The SNCR system is not as efficient at higher revolutions per minute (rpm). SNCR is being optimized to have higher efficiency with broader temperatures, to be more durable, and to meet other commercial needs.[29]

Selective non-catalytic reduction

With emissions standards increasing, diesel engines are having to become more efficient and have less pollutants in their exhaust. For instance, light duty truck must now have NOx emissions less than 0.07 g/mile, and in the U.S., by 2010, NOx emissions must be less than 0.03 g/mile. Moreover, in recent years the United States, Europe, and Japan have extended emissions control regulations from covering on-road vehicles to include farm vehicles and locomotives, marine vessels, and stationary generator applications.[29][subscription] Engineers have come up with two principle and distinct systems to all on-market products meet the U.S. 2010 emissions criteria, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Both are in the exhaust system of diesel engines, and are further designed to promote efficiency.

General

Remedies

Experiments in 2013 showed that diesel exhaust impaired bees' ability to detect the scent of oilseed rape flowers.[28]

Other effects

When starting from cold, the engine's combustion efficiency is reduced because the cold engine block draws heat out of the cylinder in the compression stroke. The result is that fuel is not burned fully, resulting in blue and white smoke and lower power outputs until the engine has warmed. This is especially the case with indirect injection engines, which are less thermally efficient. With electronic injection, the timing and length of the injection sequence can be altered to compensate for this. Older engines with mechanical injection can have mechanical and hydraulic governor control to alter the timing, and multi-phase electrically controlled glow plugs, that stay on for a period after start-up to ensure clean combustion; the plugs are automatically switched to a lower power to prevent their burning out.

The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit", beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely burned. As the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric, it is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke. This is only done in high performance applications where these disadvantages are of little concern.

Diesel engines can produce black soot (or more specifically diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust. The black smoke consists of carbon compounds that have not burned because of local low temperatures where the fuel is not fully atomized. These local low temperatures occur at the cylinder walls, and at the surface of large droplets of fuel. At these areas where it is relatively cold, the mixture is rich (contrary to the overall mixture which is lean). The rich mixture has less air to burn and some of the fuel turns into a carbon deposit. Modern car engines use a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to capture carbon particles and then intermittently burn them using extra fuel injected directly into the filter. This prevents carbon buildup at the expense of wasting a small quantity of fuel.

The types and quantities of nanoparticles can vary according to operating temperatures and pressures, presence of an open flame, fundamental fuel type and fuel mixture, and even atmospheric mixtures. As such, the resulting types of nanoparticles from different engine technologies and even different fuels are not necessarily comparable. One study has shown that the 95% of the volatile component of diesel nanoparticles is unburned lubricating oil.[27] Long-term effects still need to be further clarified, as well as the effects on susceptible groups of people with cardiopulmonary diseases.

Variation with engine conditions

Since the study of the detrimental health effects of nanoparticles (nanotoxicology) is still in its infancy, and the nature and extent of negative health impacts from diesel exhaust continues to be discovered. There is little controversy, however, that the public health impact of diesels is higher than that of petrol-fuelled vehicles despite the wide uncertainties.[26]

The study of nanoparticles and nanotoxicology is in its infancy, and health effects from nanoparticles produced by all types of diesel engines are still being uncovered. It is clear, that diesel health detriments of fine particle emissions are severe and pervasive. Although one study found no significant evidence that short-term exposure to diesel exhaust results in adverse extrapulmonary effects, effects that are correlated with an increase in cardiovascular disease,[25] a 2011 study in The Lancet concluded that traffic exposure is the single most serious preventable trigger of heart attack in the general public, as the cause of 7.4% of all attacks.[14] It is impossible to tell how much of this effect is due to the stress of being in traffic and how much is due to exposure to exhaust.

Mortality from diesel soot exposure in 2001 was at least 14,400 out of the German population of 82 million, according to the official report 2352 of the Umweltbundesamt Berlin (Federal Environmental Agency of Germany).

The NERC-HPA funded Traffic Pollution and Health in London project at King's College London is currently seeking to refine understanding of the health effects of traffic pollution.[24] Ambient traffic-related air pollution was associated with decreased cognitive function in older men.[15]

Exposures have been linked with acute short-term symptoms such as headache, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea, coughing, difficult or labored breathing, tightness of chest, and irritation of the eyes and nose and throat. Long-term exposures can lead to chronic, more serious health problems such as cardiovascular disease, cardiopulmonary disease, and lung cancer.[12][13][22] Elemental carbon attributable to traffic was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 and persistent wheezing at age 3 in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study birth cohort study.[23]

Specific effects

A study of particulate matter (PM) emissions from transit buses running on ULSD and soybean biodiesel (B20) was reported by Omidvarborna and coworkers, where they conclude PM emissions appeared lower in cases of biodiesel use, where they were dependent on the engine model, cold and hot idle modes, and fuel type, and that heavy metals in PM emitted during hot idling were greater than those from cold idling; reasons for PM reduction in biodiesel emissions were suggested to result from the oxygenated structure of biodiesel fuel, as well as arising from changes in technology (including the use of a catalytic converter in this test system).[21]

The main particulate fraction of diesel exhaust consists of fine particles. Because of their small size, inhaled particles may easily penetrate deep into the lungs. The rough surfaces of these particles makes it easy for them to bind with other toxins in the environment, thus increasing the hazards of particle inhalation.[7]

Diesel particulate matter (DPM), sometimes also called diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is the particulate component of diesel exhaust, which includes diesel soot and aerosols such as ash particulates, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates, and silicates. When released into the atmosphere, DPM can take the form of individual particles or chain aggregates, with most in the invisible sub-micrometre range of 100nanometers, also known as ultrafine particles (UFP) or PM0.1.

Heavy truck, with visible particulate soot

Concerns regarding particulates

[20]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.